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La Desigualdad En América Central Durante Los Años Noventa

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  • T. H. Gindling

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Abstract

Este trabajo pretende examinar dos preguntas: ¿cómo y por qué cambió la distribución de los ingresos en los países de América Central en los años noventa?, y, ¿por qué están los ingresos distribuido en una manera más equitativa en Costa Rica en comparación a los otros países de la región?. Para buscar respuestas a estas preguntas, se usa una técnica, basada en la estimación de ecuaciones de remuneración, que mide la magnitud de la desigualdad debido a diferentes características personales y del puesto de trabajo. La dirección de los cambios en la desigualdad del ingreso en los países Centroamericanos en los años noventa no es clara. Solamente Costa Rica presenta un deterioro claro en la distribución del ingreso. En los otros países, los resultados dependen de la medida de la desigualdad y del preceptor que se utilice. Pero bajo de estos cambios brutos, se encuentran fenómenos comunes en todos los países en los mercados de trabajo. El aumento en la dispersión de las jornadas de trabajo, es el fenómeno que se identifica con el mayor impacto negativo sobre equidad. Se identifican dos causas importantes de los diferentes niveles de desigualdad entre Costa Rica y el resto de los países de América Central. Primero, la educación está más igualitariamente distribuida en Costa Rica que en el resto de la región. Segundo, las diferencias salariales entre las zonas urbanas y rurales son más bajas en Costa Rica. Estos resultados implican que las políticas Costarricenses de la universalización de la educación primaria y de proveer aún a las comunidades rurales más aisladas de infraestructura económica y social son también causas importantes de las diferencias n la desigualdad entre Costa Rica y el resto de Centroamérica.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UMBC Department of Economics in its series UMBC Economics Department Working Papers with number 03-109.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:umb:econwp:03109

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Keywords: inequality; Latin America; labor;

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  1. Katz, Lawrence F. & Autor, David H., 1999. "Changes in the wage structure and earnings inequality," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1463-1555 Elsevier.
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  6. Almeida dos Reis, Jose Guilherme & Paes de Barros, Ricardo, 1991. "Wage inequality and the distribution of education : A study of the evolution of regional differences in inequality in metropolitan Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 117-143, July.
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  8. Fields, Gary S & Yoo, Gyeongjoon, 2000. "Falling Labor Income Inequality in Korea's Economic Growth: Patterns and Underlying Causes," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(2), pages 139-59, June.
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