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Choix d’activité des mères et garde des jeunes enfants : une comparaison entre les pays de l’Europe des Quinze à partir des données de l’ECHP

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  • Sabine Chaupain-Guillot
  • Olivier Guillot
  • Eliane Jankeliowitch-Laval
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    Abstract

    À partir des données de la vague 7 (2000) de l’European Community Household Panel (ECHP), cet article s’intéresse aux choix d’activité des mères en Europe et à leur décision, lorsqu’elles ont de jeunes enfants à charge, de recourir ou non aux services de garde. L’étude porte sur l’ensemble des États membres de l’UE-15. Après un bref survol des politiques de conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle mises en oeuvre dans les pays européens et l’exposé de différents résultats descriptifs, les comportements des mères, dans chacun de ces pays, sont analysés à l’aide de deux modèles Logit polytomiques (non ordonnés). Le premier modèle se focalise sur la décision d’offre de travail (une distinction étant introduite entre activité à temps partiel et activité à temps complet). Dans le second modèle, on oppose les trois situations suivantes : (1) non-emploi ; (2) emploi et garde intra-ménage ou non rémunérée ; (3) emploi et garde rémunérée. Les résultats des estimations montrent que l’ampleur des effets des principaux facteurs pris en compte (taux de salaire, niveau de rémunération du conjoint, nombre d’enfants à charge et âge du plus jeune enfant) varie assez fortement selon les pays. S’agissant de l’impact de la présence d’un enfant de moins de 3 ans sur la probabilité d’emploi des mères, les différences observées semblent pouvoir s’expliquer en partie par les caractéristiques des dispositifs de conciliation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg in its series Working Papers of BETA with number 2008-03.

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    Date of creation: 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:ulp:sbbeta:2008-03

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    Keywords: activité féminine; travail à temps partiel; garde des jeunes enfants; Union européenne.;

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    1. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    2. Hausman, Jerry & McFadden, Daniel, 1984. "Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1219-40, September.
    3. Jérôme De Henau & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2006. "The comparative effectiveness of public policies to fight motherhood-induced employment penalties and decreasing fertility in the former eu-15," DULBEA Working Papers 06-02rs, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Karen Mumford & Antonia Parera-Nicolau, . "The Labor Force Participation of Married Mothers in Spain and Britain," Discussion Papers 01/10, Department of Economics, University of York.
    5. Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
    6. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua, 2005. "Social Policies and Employment of Married Women in Europe," CHILD Working Papers wp19_05, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    7. Muehlberger, Ulrike, 2000. "Women's Labour Force Attachment in Europe: An Analytical Framework and Empirical Evidence for the Household," IRISS Working Paper Series 2000-07, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
    8. De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Ugidos Olazabal, Arantza & Ariza, Alfredo, 2003. "The effect of flexibility in working hours on fertility: A comparative analysis of selected european countries," DFAEII Working Papers 2003-08, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
    9. Small, Kenneth A & Hsiao, Cheng, 1985. "Multinomial Logit Specification Tests," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 26(3), pages 619-27, October.
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