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Largest Consistent Set in International Environmental Agreements

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  • Giovanni Villani

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  • Marta Biancardi
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    Abstract

    In this paper we study the formation and the stability of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) in a pollution abatement model with a quadratic cost function. Countries play a two-stage game: in the first stage each country decides to join or not the coalition while, in the -second stage, the quantity of pollution abatement is chosen. To analyze the stability of coalition structures in a multiple coalition game, we use the notion of the Largest Consistent Set (LCS) which allows players to be farsighted.In an abstract context, Chwe (1994) developed the concept of farsighted stability: an outcome is stable and it is in the LCS if and only if deviations from it or potential further deviations are not unanimously preferred to the original outcome by the coalition considering the deviations. Applying this notion of stability in the IEA context we assume that, when a country or a sub-coalition contemplate exiting or joining an agreement, it takes into account the reactions of other countries ignited by its own actions. We identify what would be the resulting stable structures and the LCS, examining the indicator of countries’ environmental awareness proposed by the model. A particular analysis is proposed about the Grand Coalition. Moreover, we present a handy Maple algorithm to compare the cost functions and to determine direct dominance.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Matematiche e Statistiche, Universita' di Foggia in its series Quaderni DSEMS with number 04-2011.

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    Date of creation: Apr 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:ufg:qdsems:04-2011

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    Keywords: IEA; Farsightedness; Implementation.;

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    References

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    1. Effrosyni Diamantoudi & Eftichios Sartzetakis, 2002. "Stable International Environmental Agreements: An Analytical Approach," Others 0201001, EconWPA.
    2. Ray, Debraj & Vohra, Rajiv, 1997. "Equilibrium Binding Agreements," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 30-78, March.
    3. DIAMANTOUDI, Effrosyni & SARTZETAKIS, Eftichios, 2002. "International environmental agreements - The role of foresight," CORE Discussion Papers 2002061, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    4. Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1993. "Strategies for the international protection of the environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 309-328, October.
    5. Santiago J. Rubio & Alistair Ulph, 2006. "Self-enforcing international environmental agreements revisited," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 233-263, April.
    6. Michael Hoel, 1992. "International environment conventions: The case of uniform reductions of emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 141-159, March.
    7. Licun Xue, 1998. "Coalitional stability under perfect foresight," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 603-627.
    8. Ana Mauleon & Vincent Vannetelbosch, 2004. "Farsightedness and Cautiousness in Coalition Formation Games with Positive Spillovers," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 56(3), pages 291-324, 05.
    9. Marta Biancardi & Giovanni Villani, 2010. "International Environmental Agreements with Asymmetric Countries," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 69-92, June.
    10. M Sáiz & Eligius Hendrix & Niels Olieman, 2006. "On the Computation of Stability in Multiple Coalition Formation Games," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 251-275, October.
    11. Claude d'Aspremont & Alexis Jacquemin & Jean Jaskold Gabszewicz & John A. Weymark, 1983. "On the Stability of Collusive Price Leadership," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 16(1), pages 17-25, February.
    12. Aart de Zeeuw, 2005. "Dynamic Effects on the Stability of International Environmental Agreements," Working Papers 2005.41, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    13. Johan Eyckmans, 2001. "On the farsighted stability of the Kyoto Protocol," Energy, Transport and Environment Working Papers Series ete0103, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Energy, Transport and Environment.
    14. Dritan Osmani & Richard Tol, 2010. "The Case of two Self-Enforcing International Agreements for Environmental Protection with Asymmetric Countries," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 36(2), pages 93-119, August.
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