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Eficiencia técnica y apertura comercial en cuatro ramas industriales

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  • Ruben Tansini
  • Patricia Triunfo

Abstract

En este trabajo se analiza del desarrollo de la eficiencia técnica de las empresas pertenecientes a cuatro ramas del sector industrial uruguayo: 3111 (Matanza y Preparación de Carnes y Aves), 3521 (Pinturas, Barnices y Lacas), 3522 (Productos Farmacéuticos y Medicamentos) y 3523 (Artículos de Limpieza y Tocador). La modelización de la Función de Frontera se hace con tecnología Translogarítmica incluyendo la restricción de Cambio Técnico Neutral, excepto para la rama 3521 en la que se permite sesgo en la utilización de los factores. El análisis de esos parámetros permite identificar que el sesgo del cambio técnico en esa rama en la Función de Frontera es utilizador de Capital y ahorrador de Mano de Obra. En la modelización de la Función de Frontera, además de los parámetros correspondientes a la formulación translogarítmica se incorporó la modelización del efecto de variables específicas correspondientes a la empresa y a la rama para identificar la incidencia de los mismos sobre el nivel de eficiencia de las empresas. Se puede concluir que la modelización que incluye la ineficiencia técnica es adecuada para las cuatro ramas consideradas, así como la inclusión de variables que representan características de las empresas que pueden influir el nivel de eficiencia de las mismas en cada rama. Los niveles promedio de eficiencia se incrementan al final del período 1988-1994 en dos ramas industriales (3521 y 3523) mientras se mantiene estable en la 3111 y decrece en la 3522. Asimismo, en las cuatro ramas analizadas se encontró que las empresas con participación de capital extranjero y creciente proporción de las ventas del mercado local, presentan niveles de eficiencia promedio más elevados. Ello se incrementa con la competencia de importados en el consumo de bienes de la rama industrial a la que pertenece la empresa. Sin embargo, la propensión a exportar de las empresas evidenció un efecto negativo en el nivel de eficiencia promedio de las empresas en tres de las cuatro ramas consideradas.

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File URL: http://decon.edu.uy/publica/1998/Doc0998.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics - dECON in its series Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) with number 0998.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: Dec 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ude:wpaper:0998

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Cited by:
  1. Adriana Cassoni, 1999. "The wage elasticity of labour demand in the Uruguayan manufacturing sector after re-unionisation: new results," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1499, Department of Economics - dECON.

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