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Understanding the Brazilian success in reducing child labour: empirical evidence and policy lessons. Drawing policy lessons from the Brazilian experience

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Abstract

Brazil has witnessed dramatic progress towards eliminating child labour and achieving universal basic school enrolment in the last two decades. Indeed, in the period from 1992 to 2009, economic activity among 7-15 year-olds fell by more than half, from 18 percent to less than seven percent, while school attendance rose from 85 percent to 97 percent. What were the factors underlying this success? Was it driven primarily by policy? And, if so, which policies were most influential? Or, alternatively, was the progress more a product of demographic trends, or of broader changes in the Brazilian macro-economy and labour market? The current report takes up these questions using data from the multi-year Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios (PNAD) survey programme. It looks in detail at trends in child labour and schooling over the 1992-2008 period, and analyses the reasons behind these trends, in an attempt to draw concrete policy lessons from the Brazilian experience applicable in countries lagging behind in terms of child labour elimination efforts.

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Paper provided by Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) in its series UCW Working Paper with number 55.

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Date of creation: Jun 2011
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Handle: RePEc:ucw:worpap:55

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References

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  1. F.Rosati & M. Rossi, 2007. "Impact of school quality on child labor and school attendance: the case of CONAFE Compensatory Education Program in Mexico," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 21, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  2. Rosangela Bando G. & Luis F. Lopez-Calva & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Child Labor, School Attendance, and Indigenous Households: Evidence from Mexico," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 7, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  3. Norbert Schady & Maria Caridad Araujo, 2008. "Cash Transfers, Conditions, and School enrollment in Ecuador," JOURNAL OF LACEA ECONOMIA, LACEA - LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION.
  4. Fernanda Cabral Santos & André Portela Fernandes de Souza, 2007. "A Redução Do Trabalho Infantil E O Aumento Da Freqüência Escolar Na Década De 90 No Brasil," Anais do XXXV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 35th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Gr 129, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  5. Andrea Rodrigues Ferro & Ana Lucia Kassouf & Deborah Levison, 2011. "The Impact Ofconditional Cash Transfer Programs On Household Work Decisions In Brazil," Anais do XXXVII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 37th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of 208, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  6. L.Guarcello & B.Henschel & S.Lyon & F.Rosati & C. Valdivia, 2006. "Child Labour in the Latin America and Carribean Region: a Gender Based Analisys," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 17, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  7. D. Vuri, 2008. "The effect of availability and distance to school on children's time allocation in Ghana and Guatemala," UCW Working Paper, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme) 40, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  8. FERRO, Andrea Rodrigues & KASSOUF, Ana Lúcia, 2005. "Efeitos do aumento da idade mínima legal no trabalho dos brasileiros de 14 e 15 anos," Brazilian Journal of Rural Economy and Sociology (RESR), Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural, vol. 43(2), June.
  9. Donald M. Pianto & Sergei Soares, 2004. "Use Of Survey Design For The Evaluation Of Social Programs: The Pnad And Peti," Anais do XXXII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 32th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of G 133, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  10. Juan Díaz & Miguel Jaramillo, 2006. "An Evaluation of the Peruvian "Youth Labor Training Program"-PROJOVEN," OVE Working Papers, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) 1006, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
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Cited by:
  1. Bardasi, Elena & Beegle, Kathleen & Dillon, Andrew & Serneels, Pieter, 2010. "Do Labor Statistics Depend on How and to Whom the Questions Are Asked? Results from a Survey Experiment in Tanzania," IZA Discussion Papers 4733, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Dillon, Andrew, 2009. "Measuring child labor: Comparisons between hours data and subjective measures," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 879, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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