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Redlining, the Community Reinvestment Act, and Private Mortgage Insurance

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Author Info

  • Stephen L. Ross

    (University of Connecticut)

  • Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)

Abstract

This paper examines whether neighborhood racial or income composition influences a lender's treatment of mortgage applications. Recent studies have found little evidence of differential treatment based on either the racial or income composition of the neighborhood, once the specification accounts for neighborhood risk factors. This paper suggests that lenders may favor applicants from CRA-protected neighborhoods if they obtain Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) and that this behavior may mask lender redlining of low income and minority neighborhoods. For loan applicants who are not covered by PMI, this paper finds strong evidence that applications for units in low-income neighborhoods are less likely to be approved, and some evidence that applications for units in minority neighborhoods are less likey to be approved, regardless of the race of the applicant. This pattern is not visible in earlier studies because lenders appear to treat applications from these neighborhoods more favorably when the applicant obtains PMI.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Department of Economics in its series Working papers with number 2000-04.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: 2000
Date of revision:
Publication status: Forthcoming in Journal of Urban Economics
Handle: RePEc:uct:uconnp:2000-04

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Postal: University of Connecticut 341 Mansfield Road, Unit 1063 Storrs, CT 06269-1063
Phone: (860) 486-4889
Fax: (860) 486-4463
Web page: http://www.econ.uconn.edu/
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Related research

Keywords: Community Reinvestment Act; Private Mortgage Insurance; Mortgage Lending; Discrimination;

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References

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  1. Boyes, William J. & Hoffman, Dennis L. & Low, Stuart A., 1989. "An econometric analysis of the bank credit scoring problem," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 3-14, January.
  2. Holmes, Andrew & Horvitz, Paul, 1994. " Mortgage Redlining: Race, Risk, and Demand," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 81-99, March.
  3. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
  4. Geoffrey M. Tootell, 1996. "Redlining in Boston: do mortgage lenders discriminate against neighborhoods?," Working Papers 96-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  5. Alicia H. Munnell, 1992. "Mortgage lending in Boston: interpreting HMDA data," Working Papers 92-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  6. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1974. "Multivariate Regression and Simultaneous Equation Models when the Dependent Variables Are Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(6), pages 999-1012, November.
  7. Schill, Michael H & Wachter, Susan M, 1994. "Borrower and Neighborhood Racial and Income Characteristics and Financial Institution Mortgage Application Screening," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 223-39, November.
  8. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
  9. Michael H. Schill & Susan M. Wachter, . "A Tale of Two Cities: Racial and Ethnic Geographic Disparities in Home Mortgage Lending in Boston and Philadelphia," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 16-93, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  10. Brock,W.A. & Durlauf,S.N., 2000. "Discrete choice with social interactions," Working papers 7, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  11. Cavalluzzo, Ken S & Cavalluzzo, Linda C, 1998. "Market Structure and Discrimination: The Case of Small Businesses," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 771-92, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Blackburn, McKinley & Vermilyea, Todd, 2007. "The role of information externalities and scale economies in home mortgage lending decisions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 71-85, January.
  2. Stephen L. Ross, 2005. "The Continuing Practice and Impact of Discrimination," Working papers 2005-19, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2006.
  3. Yongheng Deng & Stephen L. Ross & Susan M. Wachter, 2002. "Racial Differences in Homeownership: The Effect of Residential Location," Working papers 2002-05, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  4. Luis Diaz-Serrano, 2005. "Income Volatility and Residential Mortgage Delinquency: Evidence from 12 EU countries," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n1530205, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
  5. Diaz-Serrano, Luis, 2004. "Income Volatility and Residential Mortgage Delinquency: Evidence from 12 EU Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 1396, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Ruben Hernandez & Michael Owyang & Andra Ghent, 2011. "Race and Subprime Loan Pricing," ERSA conference papers ersa11p923, European Regional Science Association.
  7. Yan Zhang, 2013. "Fair Lending Analysis of Mortgage Pricing: Does Underwriting Matter?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 131-151, January.
  8. Diaz-Serrano, Luis, 2005. "On the negative relationship between labor income uncertainty and homeownership: Risk-aversion vs. credit constraints," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 109-126, June.
  9. Ghent, Andra C. & Hernández-Murillo, Rubén & Owyang, Michael T., 2011. "Differences in subprime loan pricing across races and neighborhoods," Working Papers 2011-033, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised 05 Mar 2014.
  10. Diaz-Serrano, Luis, 2005. "Income volatility and residential mortgage delinquency across the EU," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 153-177, September.

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