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Coordination and Self-Organization in Minority Games: Experimental Evidence

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  • Giulio Bottazzi
  • Giovanna Devetag

Abstract

This work presents experimental results on a coordination game in which agents must repeatedly choose between two sides, and a positive fixed payoff is assigned only to agents who pick the minoritarian side. We conduct laboratory experiments in which stationary groups of five players play the game for 100 periods, and manipulate two treatment variables: the amount of `memory' M that players have regarding the game history (i.e., the length of the string of past outcomes that players can see on the screen while choosing), and the amount of information about other players' past choices. Our results show that, at the aggregate level a quite remarkable degree of coordination is achieved. Moreover providing players with full information about other players' choice distribution does not appear to improve efficiency significantly. At the individual level, a substantial portion of subjects exhibit 'inertial' behavior.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy in its series ROCK Working Papers with number 019.

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Length: 15 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2002
Date of revision: 12 Jun 2008
Handle: RePEc:trt:rockwp:019

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  1. Arthur, W Brian, 1994. "Inductive Reasoning and Bounded Rationality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 406-11, May.
  2. J. B. Van Huyck & R. C. Battalio & R. O. Beil, 2010. "Tacit coordination games, strategic uncertainty, and coordination failure," Levine's Working Paper Archive 661465000000000393, David K. Levine.
  3. Challet, Damien & Zhang, Yi-Cheng, 1998. "On the minority game: Analytical and numerical studies," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 256(3), pages 514-532.
  4. Rami Zwick & Amnon Rapoport, 1999. "Tacit Coordination in a Decentralized Market Entry Game with Fixed Capacity," Experimental 9903001, EconWPA.
  5. Duffy, John & Hopkins, Ed, 2005. "Learning, information, and sorting in market entry games: theory and evidence," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 31-62, April.
  6. Sundali, James A. & Rapoport, Amnon & Seale, Darryl A., 1995. "Coordination in Market Entry Games with Symmetric Players," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 203-218, November.
  7. Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-81, September.
  8. Ochs, Jack, 1990. "The Coordination Problem in Decentralized Markets: An Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(2), pages 545-59, May.
  9. Challet, D. & Zhang, Y.-C., 1997. "Emergence of cooperation and organization in an evolutionary game," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 246(3), pages 407-418.
  10. Rapoport, Amnon & Boebel, Richard B., 1992. "Mixed strategies in strictly competitive games: A further test of the minimax hypothesis," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 261-283, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Paolo Laureti & Peter Ruch & Joseph Wakeling & Yi-Cheng Zhang, 2004. "The Interactive Minority Game: a Web based investigation of human market interactions," Experimental 0402004, EconWPA.
  2. Scarlatti, Sergio & Scarsini, Marco & Renault, Jérôme, 2008. "Discounted and Finitely Repeated Minority Games with Public Signals," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/2347, Paris Dauphine University.
  3. Willemien Kets, 2007. "The minority game: An economics perspective," Papers 0706.4432, arXiv.org.

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