Optimal Contracts for Lenient Supervisors
AbstractWe consider a situation where an agent's effort is monitored by a supervisor who cares for the agent's well being. This is modeled by incorporating the agent's utility into the utility function of the supervisor. The first best solution can be implemented even if the supervisor's preferences are unknown. The corresponding optimal contract is similar to what we observe in practice: The supervisor's wage is constant and independent of his report. It induces one type of supervisor to report the agent's performance truthfully, while all others report favorably independent of performance. This implies that overstated performance (leniency bias) may be the outcome of optimal contracts under informational asymmetries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich in its series Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems with number 237.
Date of creation: Jun 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Web page: http://www.sfbtr15.de/
More information through EDIRC
Subjective performance evaluation; leniency; supervisor; private infrmation;
Other versions of this item:
- D82 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design
- D86 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Economics of Contract Law
- J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
- M52 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Personnel Economics - - - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-07-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2008-07-05 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CTA-2008-07-05 (Contract Theory & Applications)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Baker, G.P. & Jensen, M.C. & Murphy, K.J., 1988.
"Compensation And Incentives: Practice Vs. Theory,"
88-05, Rochester, Business - Managerial Economics Research Center.
- Grund, Christian & Przemeck, Judith, 2008. "Subjective Performance Evaluation and Inequality Aversion," IZA Discussion Papers 3382, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- George Baker & Robert Gibbons & Kevin J. Murphy, 1993.
"Subjective Performance Measures in Optimal Incentive Contracts,"
NBER Working Papers
4480, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baker, George & Gibbons, Robert & Murphy, Kevin J, 1994. "Subjective Performance Measures in Optimal Incentive Contracts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1125-56, November.
- Julio J. Rotemberg, 2011.
Journal of the European Economic Association,
European Economic Association, vol. 9(5), pages 952-981, October.
- Baker, George P, 1992. "Incentive Contracts and Performance Measurement," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 598-614, June.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Tirole, Jean, 1986.
"Using Cost Observation to Regulate Firms,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 614-41, June.
- Strausz, R., 1995.
"Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship,"
1995-60, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Strausz, Roland, 1997. "Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 337-57, July.
- Sliwka, Dirk, 2006.
"Trust as a Signal of a Social Norm and the Hidden Costs of Incentive Schemes,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2293, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dirk Sliwka, 2007. "Trust as a Signal of a Social Norm and the Hidden Costs of Incentive Schemes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 999-1012, June.
- Lewis, Tracy R & Sappington, David E M, 1997. "Information Management in Incentive Problems," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(4), pages 796-821, August.
- Laffont & Martimort, 1997.
"Collusion under asymmetric information,"
152574, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
- Gary E. Bolton & Rami Zwick & Elena Katok, 1998. "Dictator game giving: Rules of fairness versus acts of kindness," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 269-299.
- Ferdinand A. von Siemens, 2011. "Heterogeneous social preferences, screening, and employment contracts," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(3), pages 499-522, July.
- Uri Gneezy, 2005. "Deception: The Role of Consequences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 384-394, March.
- Prendergast, Canice & Topel, Robert H, 1996.
"Favoritism in Organizations,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 958-78, October.
- Kouroche Vafaï, 2004. "Delegation and Opportunism," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 160(3), pages 498-, September.
- Bentley W. MacLeod, 2003.
"Optimal Contracting with Subjective Evaluation,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 216-240, March.
- Rotemberg, Julio J., 2005.
"Attitude-Dependent Altruism, Turnout and Voting,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5146, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Medoff, James L & Abraham, Katharine G, 1980.
"Experience, Performance, and Earnings,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 703-36, December.
- Robert Gibbons, 1998.
"Incentives in Organizations,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 115-132, Fall.
- Antoine Faure-Grimaud & Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 2003.
"Collusion, Delegation and Supervision with Soft Information,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 253-279.
- Antoine Faure-Grimaud & Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 2003. "Collusion, Delegation and Supervision with Soft Information," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 253-279, 04.
- Faure-Grimaud, Antoine & Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Martimort, David, 2003. "Collusion, Delegation and Supervision with Soft Information," IDEI Working Papers 167, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Prendergast, Canice & Topel, Robert, 1993. "Discretion and bias in performance evaluation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 355-365, April.
- repec:eme:rlepps:v:18:y:1999:i:1999:p:177-242 is not listed on IDEAS
- R. Preston McAfee & John McMillan, 1987. "Competition for Agency Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(2), pages 296-307, Summer.
- Robert Gibbons, 2005. "Incentives Between Firms (and Within)," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(1), pages 2-17, January.
- Canice Prendergast, 1999. "The Provision of Incentives in Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 7-63, March.
- Tirole, Jean, 1986. "Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the Role of Collusion in Organizations," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 181-214, Fall.
- Lucia Marchegiani & Tommaso Reggiani & Matteo Rizzolli, 2013. "Severity vs. Leniency Bias in Performance Appraisal: Experimental evidence," BEMPS - Bozen Economics & Management Paper Series BEMPS01, School of Economics and Management at the Free University of Bozen.
- Robert Dur & Jan Tichem, 2012.
"Social Relations and Relational Incentives,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
12-054/1, Tinbergen Institute.
- Andres, Christian & Fernau, Erik & Theissen, Erik, 2013. "Should I stay or should I go? Former CEOs as monitors," CFR Working Papers 12-02 [rev.], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
- Dur, Robert & Tichem, Jan, 2013. "Altruism and Relational Incentives in the Workplace," IZA Discussion Papers 7363, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Matthias Lang, 2012.
"Communicating Subjective Evaluations,"
Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods
2012_14, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, revised Mar 2014.
- Andres, Christian & Fernau, Erik & Theissen, Erik, 2012. "Is it better to say goodbye? When former executives set executive pay," CFR Working Papers 12-02, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
- Jan Tichem, 2013. "Leniency Bias in Long-Term Workplace Relationships," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-196/VII, Tinbergen Institute.
- Golman, Russell & Bhatia, Sudeep, 2012. "Performance evaluation inflation and compression," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 534-543.
- repec:dgr:uvatin:2012054 is not listed on IDEAS
- Gürtler, Marc & Gürtler, Oliver, 2012. "The interaction of explicit and implicit contracts: A signaling approach," Working Papers IF38V1, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Finance.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alexandra Frank).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.