Patterns of Non-exponential Growth of Macroeconomic Models: Two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet Models
AbstractWe investigate the structure of interactions among countries exercising voluntary uncoordinated choice but sharing a common "risk profile" --- a vector comprised of chance of adversity/emergency and magnitude of loss under adversity/emergency. We use the term "emergency costs" to refer to the vector and/or its components. Countries strive to reduce emergency costs (a) by providing mutual self-insurance against loss and (b) mutual self-protection against risk. Because of their common risk profile each country's security spending whether on self-insurance or on self-protection provides a public good (pure or impure) to all in the group --- hence our term "mutual." We show that under expected utility maximization the normality or inferiority of such public goods depends crucially on hitherto unrecognized interactions between preference functions and status quo risks. Moreover we discover that these interactions differ systematically between insurance and protection with important policy implications for comparing the two instruments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that configurations where security is inferior are not at all unlikely. In such case the provision of international public goods can easily face an endogenous obstacle, an "inferior good barrier," under Nash-Cournot behavior and under Leader-Follower behavior with Stackelberg outcomes. (These, however, display novel and desirable properties even when the public good is inferior.) When improvements in risk profile generate not pure public goods, but instead imperfect, ambiguous, or even negative benefits among partners, who is an ally and who an adversary, itself becomes ambiguous. For this configuration where the emergency risk profile differs among allies, we show how spillovers from emergency cost reduction and their effects on welfare will be depend critically on the sign of income effects.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo in its series CIRJE F-Series with number CIRJE-F-450.
Date of creation: Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033
Web page: http://www.cirje.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html
More information through EDIRC
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-01-13 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Toshihiro Ihori & Martin C. McGuire, 2006.
"Collective Risk Control And Group Security: The Unexpected Consequences of Differential Risk Aversion,"
CIRJE-F-402, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
- TOSHIHIRO IHORI & MARTIN C. McGUIRE, 2007. "Collective Risk Control and Group Security: The Unexpected Consequences of Differential Risk Aversion," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 9(2), pages 231-263, 04.
- Toshihiro Ihori & Martin C. McGuire, 2006. "Collective Risk Control And Group Security: The Unexpected Consequences of Differential Risk Aversion," CARF F-Series CARF-F-060, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
- repec:fth:coluec:758 is not listed on IDEAS
- Jack Hirshleifer, 1983. "From weakest-link to best-shot: The voluntary provision of public goods," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 371-386, January.
- Tim Lohse & Julio R. Robledo & Ulrich Schmidt, 2012.
"Self‐Insurance and Self‐Protection as Public Goods,"
Journal of Risk & Insurance,
The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 79(1), pages 57-76, 03.
- Ulrich Schmidt, 2010. "Self-Insurance and Self-Protection as Public Goods," Kiel Working Papers 1613, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Schmidt, Ulrich & Robledo, Julio R. & Lohse, Tim, 2007. "Self-Insurance and Self-Protection as Public Goods," Economics Working Papers 2007,16, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
- Lohse, Tim & Julio R. Robledo & Ulrich Schmidt, 2006. "Self-Insurance and Self-Protection as Public Goods," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-354, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
- Ehrlich, Isaac & Becker, Gary S, 1972. "Market Insurance, Self-Insurance, and Self-Protection," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(4), pages 623-48, July-Aug..
- Ihori Toshihiro, 1994. "Economic Integration of Countries with International Public Goods," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 530-550, December.
- Alesina, Alberto & Perotti, Roberto, 1998.
"Economic Risk and Political Risk in Fiscal Unions,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 989-1008, July.
- McGuire, Martin C & Pratt, John & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1991. " Paying to Improve Your Chances: Gambling or Insurance?," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 329-38, December.
- Cornes, Richard & Sandler, Todd, 1984. "Easy Riders, Joint Production, and Public Goods," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(375), pages 580-98, September.
- McGuire, M.C. & Andreoni, J., 1991.
"Identifying the Free Riders: A Simple Algorithm for Determining who will Contribute to Public Good,"
90-92-03, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Andreoni, James & McGuire, Martin C., 1993. "Identifying the free riders : A simple algorithm for determining who will contribute to a public good," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 447-454, July.
- Boadway, Robin & Hayashi, Masayoshi, 1999. "Country size and the voluntary provision of international public goods," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 619-638, November.
- Martin McGuire, 2006. "Uncertainty, Risk Aversion, And Optimal Defense Against Interruptions In Supply," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 287-309.
- Roger Hartley & Richard Cornes, 2003.
"Aggregative Public Good Games,"
Keele Economics Research Papers
KERP 2003/05, Centre for Economic Research, Keele University.
- Alesina, Alberto & Spolaore, Enrico, 1997.
"On the Number and Size of Nations,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1027-56, November.
- Vicary, Simon & Sandler, Todd, 2002. "Weakest-link public goods: Giving in-kind or transferring money," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1501-1520, September.
- Roger Hartley & Richard Cornes, 2000. "Joint Production Games And Share Functions," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 2000/07, Department of Economics, Keele University.
- Vicary, Simon, 1990. "Transfers and the weakest-link : An extension of Hirshleifer's analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 375-394, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (CIRJE administrative office).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.