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The Transition from Welfare to Work

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  • Robert J. Lemke

    (Lake Forest College)

  • Robert J. Witt

    (University of Surrey)

  • Ann Dryden Witte

    (Wellesley College and NBER)

Abstract

We consider the effects the child care market, child care vouchers, early childhood education programs, and welfare reforms have on welfare recipients in their transition from welfare to work. Specifically, we are interested in determining which factors encourage single mothers to move directly from welfare to work and which factors encourage the pursuit of additional schooling or job retraining before entering the labor market. Using Massachusetts data from July 1996 through August 1997, we find that the availability, quality, and cost of formal child care are all positively related to transiting directly from welfare to work. We also find that single mothers with older children are more likely to pursue a job and forego additional schooling, while single mothers with infants are more likely to advance their education before seeking employment.

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File URL: http://www.fahs.surrey.ac.uk/economics/discussion_papers/2004/DP05-04.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by School of Economics, University of Surrey in its series School of Economics Discussion Papers with number 0504.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0504

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Postal: Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH
Phone: (01483) 259380
Fax: (01483) 259548
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Web page: http://www.surrey.ac.uk/economics/
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Keywords: Welfare Reform; Child Care; Vouchers; Time Limits; Labor Supply;

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References

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  1. Jeff Grogger & Charles Michalopoulos, 1999. "Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits," NBER Working Papers 7353, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Rebecca M. Blank, 2002. "Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1105-1166, December.
  3. Ribar, David C, 1995. "A Structural Model of Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(3), pages 558-97, July.
  4. Erdal Tekin, 2004. "Single Mothers Working at Night: Standard Work, Child Care Subsidies, and Implications for Welfare Reform," NBER Working Papers 10274, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Rachel Connelly & Jean Kimmel, 2003. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on the Employment and Welfare Recipiency of Single Mothers," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 498-519, January.
  6. J. P. Ziliak & D. N. Figlio & E. E. Davis & L. S. Connolly, . "Accounting for the Decline in AFDC Caseloads: Welfare Reform or Economic Growth?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1151-97, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  7. Patricia M. Anderson & Philip B. Levine, 1999. "Child Care and Mothers' Employment Decisions," NBER Working Papers 7058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-38, May.
  9. Jeff Grogger, 2000. "Time Limits and Welfare Use," NBER Working Papers 7709, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Pamela Loprest & Stefanie Schmidt & Ann Dryden Witte, 2000. "Welfare Reform under PRWORA: Aid to Children with Working Families?," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 14, pages 157-203 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Jeffrey Grogger, 2003. "The Effects of Time Limits, the EITC, and Other Policy Changes on Welfare Use, Work, and Income among Female-Headed Families," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 394-408, May.
  12. Marcia Meyers & Theresa Heintze & Douglas Wolf, 2002. "Child care subsidies and the employment of welfare recipients," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 165-179, February.
  13. Adrian Pagan, 1985. "Two Stage and Related Estimators and Their Applications," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 741, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  14. Siv Gustafsson & Frank Stafford, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies and Labor Supply in Sweden," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 204-230.
  15. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-81, August.
  16. David Blau & Erdal Tekin, 2003. "The Determinants and Consequences of Child Care Subsidies for Single Mothers," NBER Working Papers 9665, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Ann Dryden Witte & Magaly Queralt, 2003. "Impacts of Eligibility Expansions and Provider Reimbursement Rate Increases on Child Care Subsidy Take-Up Rates, Welfare Use and Work," NBER Working Papers 9693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Charles Michalopoulos & Philip K. Robins & Irwin Garfinkel, 1992. "A Structural Model of Labor Supply and Child Care Demand," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 166-203.
  19. David M. Blau & Alison P. Hagy, 1998. "The Demand for Quality in Child Care," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 104-146, February.
  20. Ann Dryden Witte & Marisol Trowbridge, 2005. "The Structure of Early Care and Education in the United States: Historical Evolution and International Comparisons," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 19, pages 1-38 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Sandra L. Hofferth & Douglas A. Wissoker, 1992. "Price, Quality, and Income in Child Care Choice," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 70-111.
  22. Pagan, Adrian, 1984. "Econometric Issues in the Analysis of Regressions with Generated Regressors," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 25(1), pages 221-47, February.
  23. James R. Walker, 1992. "New Evidence on the Supply of Child Care: A Statistical Portrait of Family Providers and an Analysis of Their Fees," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 40-69.
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Cited by:
  1. Herbst, Chris M., 2008. "Who are the eligible non-recipients of child care subsidies?," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1037-1054, September.

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