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Low-income in Census Metropolitan Areas, 1980-2000

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Author Info

  • Heisz, Andrew McLeod, Logan

Abstract

The report examines income and low income in census metropolitan areas between 1980 and 2000. It examines the situation of families and the neighbourhoods they live in. It also examines the situation of recent immigrants, Aboriginal people and lone-parent family members. Median pre-tax income rose in virtually all Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) over the 1980 to 2000 period. Incomes increased at both the top and bottom of the income distribution, but tended to rise faster at the top. In nearly all cities, income increased faster in the higher income neighbourhoods - measured at the census tract (CT) level - than it did in lower income neighbourhoods. The incidence of low income was at similar levels in 1980 and 2000, but the demographic composition of low income changed, reflecting rising low-income rates among some 'at-risk' groups, as well as demographic changes in the CMA. By 2000, recent immigrants comprised more of the low-income population, and a greater share of the residents in low-income neighbourhoods than they did in 1980. Recent immigrants had much higher low-income rates in 2000 than in 1980. In 2000, Aboriginal people and people in single-parent families had much higher low-income rates than others and were over-represented in low-income neighbourhoods. The share of income that low-income families received from government transfers rose over the period. The location of low-income neighbourhoods changed in some CMAs, reflecting a decline in low-income neighbourhoods in the city centre and a rise in low-income neighbourhoods in more suburban areas. The report examines before-tax income in CMAs using the 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001 censuses of Canada.

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File URL: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=89-613-M2004001&lang=eng
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File URL: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=89-613-M2004001&lang=eng
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Social Analysis Division in its series Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas with number 2004001e.

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Date of creation: 07 Apr 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp7e:2004001e

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Postal: Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6
Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca
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Related research

Keywords: Income; pensions; spending and wealth; Household; family and personal income; Low income and inequality;

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

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  1. Myles, John Picot, Garnett Pyper, Wendy, 2000. "Neighbourhood Inequality in Canadian Cities," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000160e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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Cited by:
  1. Heisz, Andrew Larochelle-Cote, Sebastien, 2005. "Work and Commuting in Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996 to 2001," Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas 2005007e, Statistics Canada, Social Analysis Division.
  2. Allison Williams & Peter Kitchen, 2012. "Sense of Place and Health in Hamilton, Ontario: A Case Study," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 108(2), pages 257-276, September.
  3. Heisz, Andrew, 2005. "Ten Things to Know About Canadian Metropolitan Areas: A Synthesis of Statistics Canada's Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas Series," Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas 2005009e, Statistics Canada, Social Analysis Division.
  4. Houle, Rene Schellenberg, Grant, 2008. "Remittance Behaviours Among Recent Immigrants in Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2008312e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  5. Philip Oreopoulos, 2008. "Neighbourhood Effects in Canada: A Critique," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(2), pages 237-258, June.

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