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Economies d'agglomeration : estimations de panel de microdonnees du secteur canadien de la fabrication

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  • Brown, W. Mark
  • Rigby, David
  • Baldwin, John R.

Abstract

La productivite et les salaires ont tendance a etre plus eleves dans les villes. L'explication courante de ce phenomene repose sur les economies d'agglomeration, qui font augmenter le rendement associe au fait d'occuper un emplacement urbain. Les arguments paralleles axes sur la specialisation et sur la diversite viennent etayer cette explication proposee. Depuis longtemps, la recherche empirique s'efforce de confirmer l'existence de telles economies d'agglomeration et de trancher entre, d'une part, les modeles de Marshall, Arrow et Romer (MAR), qui avancent que les avantages de la proximite sont en grande partie confines a des industries particulieres, et d'autre part l'argument de Jacobs (1969) voulant que de tels avantages decoulent de l'accroissement general de la densite de l'activite economique dans un emplacement donne et profitent a l'ensemble des occupants de cet emplacement. L'objet premier de la presente etude est de determiner les principales sources de la hausse du rendement en region urbaine, dans la foulee des travaux de Marshall (1920). L'examen de la distance sur laquelle se manifestent les externalites entre entreprises appartenant a une meme industrie constitue un deuxieme objectif. Afin d'etudier ces questions, nous utilisons des donnees au niveau des etablissements, structurees sous forme de panel pour les annees 1989 et 1999. Les donnees de panel permettent d'eliminer le biais d'echantillonnage decoulant de l'heterogeneite non observee au niveau des etablissements, cette heterogeneite etant constante au fil du temps. Les fonctions de production au niveau des etablissements sont estimees pour l'ensemble du secteur canadien de la fabrication ainsi que pour cinq grands groupes d'industries caracterises par la nature de leur production. Les resultats obtenus donnent beaucoup de poids aux arguments de Marshall (1920) concernant l'importance des reseaux acheteurs fournisseurs, des bassins de main d'oeuvre et des externalites. Les donnees montrent que les externalites donnent lieu a un accroissement de la productivite des etablissements a l'interieur d'une meme industrie plutot qu'entre industries, et que ces externalites tendent a se manifester sur une plus vaste etendue spatiale que ce qui avait ete observe dans les etudes precedentes.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Serie de documents de recherche sur l'analyse economique (AE) with number 2008049f.

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Date of creation: 05 Feb 2008
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5f:2008049f

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Keywords: Business performance and ownership; Economic accounts; Manufacturing; Productivity accounts; Regional and urban profiles;

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References

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