Domestic and Foreign Influences on Canadian Prices over Exchange Rate Cycles, 1974 to 1996
AbstractThe paper examines the pricing behaviour of 81 Canadian manufacturing industries from 1974 to 1996. It explores the domestic and foreign factors that affect price formation in Canada and the circumstances in which Canadian prices respond to foreign (U.S.) influences (the law of one price), as opposed to domestic factors (i.e., labour, energy costs and productivity growth). It finds that: (1) Canadian manufacturing prices are, on average, set using a mixture of a cost mark-up pricing rule and the law-of-one-price rule: both domestic factors (such as input prices and productivity) and foreign factors (such as competing U.S. prices) exert important influences on Canadian prices; (2) Canadian prices are more sensitive to U.S. prices if the industry faces higher import competition and if home and foreign products are less differentiated. Compared to prices of domestic products, prices of imported foreign products are more responsive to foreign prices. However, the price of imports also responds to Canadian prices; though this pricing-to-market phenomenon is reduced as imports increase in importance; (3) Industry differences exist. Domestic prices respond more to productivity changes in industries where competition is more intense and where products are more homogeneous. Imports respond more to domestic factors when they account for a smaller share of the domestic market; (4) As the pressure from foreign markets increases, in a period of an appreciating Canadian dollar, changes in prices are influenced more by fluctuations in foreign prices. In comparison, when the pressure from foreign markets decreases, in a period of a depreciating Canadian dollar, changes in Canadian prices are more responsive to input cost changes at home. Disequilibria that were generated by previous shocks are overcome more quickly during periods when the exchange rate appreciated.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series with number 2006043e.
Date of creation: 08 Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Manufacturing; Prices and price indexes; Intercity and international price comparisons;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Paul Krugman, 1986. "Pricing to Market when the Exchange Rate Changes," NBER Working Papers 1926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003.
"Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Tom Doan, . "IPSHIN: RATS procedure to implement Im, Pesaran and Shin panel unit root test," Statistical Software Components RTS00098, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Joseph E. Gagnon & Michael M. Knetter, 1992.
"Markup Adjustment and Exchange Rate Fluctuations: Evidence From Panel Data on Automobile Exports,"
NBER Working Papers
4123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gagnon, Joseph E. & Knetter, Michael M., 1995. "Markup adjustment and exchange rate fluctuations: evidence from panel data on automobile exports," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 289-310, April.
- Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E. With contributions by-Name:Dunne,Tim With contributions by-Name:Haltiwanger,John, 1995.
"The Dynamics of Industrial Competition,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521465618, December.
- Morton I. Kamien & Nancy L. Schwartz, 1983. "Conjectural Variations," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 16(2), pages 191-211, May.
- Feinberg, Robert M, 1986. "The Interaction of Foreign Exchange and Market Power Effects on German Domestic Prices," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 61-70, September.
- Kenneth A. Froot & Kenneth Rogoff, 1996.
"Perspectives on PPP and Long-Run Real Exchange Rates,"
NBER Working Papers
4952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Froot, Kenneth A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 32, pages 1647-1688 Elsevier.
- John A. Karikari, 1988. "International Competitiveness and Industry Pricing in Canadian Manufacturing," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 410-26, May.
- Feinberg, Robert M, 1989. "The Effects of Foreign Exchange Movements on U.S. Domestic Prices," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(3), pages 505-11, August.
- Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Michael M. Knetter, 1997.
"Goods Prices and Exchange Rates: What Have We Learned?,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 1243-1272, September.
- Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Michael M. Knetter, 1996. "Goods Prices and Exchange Rates: What Have We Learned?," NBER Working Papers 5862, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Menon, Jayant, 1995. " Exchange Rate Pass-Through," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 197-231, June.
- Rudiger Dornbusch, 1987.
"Exchange Rates and Prices,"
NBER Working Papers
1769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stanley W. Kardasz & Kenneth R. Stollery, 1998. "Determinants of domestic and import prices in Canadian manufacturing industries," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 593-610.
- Knetter, Michael M, 1989. "Price Discrimination by U.S. and German Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 198-210, March.
- Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
- Marston, Richard C., 1990. "Pricing to market in Japanese manufacturing," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3-4), pages 217-236, November.
- Sven W. Arndt & J. David Richardson, 1988. "Real-Financial Linkages Among Open Economies," NBER Working Papers 2230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lawrence Schembri, 1989. "Export Prices and Exchange Rates: An Industry Approach," NBER Chapters, in: Trade Policies for International Competitiveness, pages 185-216 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Brown).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.