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Financing Innovation in New Small Firms: New Evidence from Canada

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  • Gaudreault, Valerie
  • Baldwin, John R.
  • Gellatly, Guy

Abstract

This paper investigates the financial characteristics of new small firms. The analysis develops a representative, small-firm financial profile and evaluates the extent to which the proportionate use of different instruments and sources is correlated with industry-level and firm-specific characteristics. Multivariate methods are then used to examine relationships among financial structure, R&D intensity, and innovation. Our results suggest that relationships between knowledge intensity and capital structure are bidirectional. After a range of industry- and firm-level covariates are controlled for, firms that devote a higher percentage of their investment expenditure to R&D also exhibit fewer debt-intensive structures. Conversely, debt-intensive structures also act to constrain investments in R&D. These relationships, however, depend upon the type of debt in the asset mix. It is the share of long-term debt to total assets that is negatively related to investments in knowledge.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series with number 2002190e.

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Date of creation: 24 May 2002
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2002190e

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Related research

Keywords: Business performance and ownership; Financial statements and performance; Small and medium-sized businesses;

References

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  1. Baldwin, John R. & Bian, Lin & Dupuy, Richard & Gellatly, Guy, 2000. "Failure Rates for New Canadian Firms: New Perspectives on Entry and Exit," Failure Rates for New Canadian Firms: New Perspectives on Entry and Exit, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis, number stcb5e, December.
  2. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Bronwyn H. Hall., 1992. "Investment and Research and Development at the Firm Level: Does the Source of Financing Matter?," Economics Working Papers 92-194, University of California at Berkeley.
  4. Gellatly, Guy, 2000. "Differences in Innovator and Non-innovator Profiles: Small Establishments in Business Services," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000143e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  5. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "A Reprise of Size and R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 925-51, July.
  6. Jacquemin, Alexis P & Berry, Charles H, 1979. "Entropy Measure of Diversification and Corporate Growth," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 359-69, June.
  7. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
  8. Gort, Michael & Klepper, Steven, 1982. "Time Paths in the Diffusion of Product Innovations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(367), pages 630-53, September.
  9. Baldwin, John R., 1997. "The Importance of Research and Development for Innovation in Small and Large Canadian Manufacturing Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1997107e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  10. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Baldwin, John R. & Gellatly, Guy & Johnson, Joanne & Peters, Valerie, 1999. "The Defining Characteristics of Entrants in Science-based Industries," The Defining Characteristics of Entrants in Science-based Industries, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis, number stcb3e, December.
  12. Sabourin, David & Baldwin, John R., 2002. "Enhancing Food Safety and Productivity: Technology Use in the Canadian Food Processing Industry," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002168e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  13. Sabourin, David & Baldwin, John R. & Hanel, Peter, 2000. "Determinants of Innovative Activity in Canadian Manufacturing Firms: The Role of Intellectual Property Rights," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000122e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  14. Johnson, Joanne & Baldwin, John R., 1995. "Business Strategies in Innovative and Non-innovative Firms in Canada," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995073e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  15. Baldwin,John R. & Gorecki,Paul With contributions by-Name:Caves,Richard E., 1998. "The Dynamics of Industrial Competition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521633574, April.
  16. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  17. Klepper, Steven & Miller, John H., 1995. "Entry, exit, and shakeouts in the United States in new manufactured products," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 567-591, December.
  18. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. John Baldwin & Beiling Yan, 2011. "The death of Canadian manufacturing plants: heterogeneous responses to changes in tariffs and real exchange rates," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 147(1), pages 131-167, April.
  2. Chavis, Larry W. & Klapper, Leora F. & Love, Inessa, 2010. "The impact of the business environment on young firm financing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5322, The World Bank.
  3. Mark Freel & Sara Carter & Stephen Tagg & Colin Mason, 2012. "The latent demand for bank debt: characterizing “discouraged borrowers”," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 399-418, May.
  4. Mueller, Elisabeth & Zimmermann, Volker, 2006. "The Importance of Equity Finance for R&D Activity: Are There Differences Between Young and OldCompanies?," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-14, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Petr Hanel, 2007. "Productivity and innovation: an overview of the issues," Cahiers de recherche 07-22, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  6. Vladimir Klyuev, 2008. "Show Me the Money," IMF Working Papers 08/22, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Audretsch, David B. & Weigand, Jurgen, 2005. "Do knowledge conditions make a difference?: Investment, finance and ownership in German industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 595-613, June.
  8. Väänänen, Lotta, 2003. "Agency Costs and R&D: Evidence from Finnish SMEs," Discussion Papers 859, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  9. Mark Freel, 2007. "Are Small Innovators Credit Rationed?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 23-35, January.
  10. Hamadi FakhFakh & Rim Zouari-Hadiji, 2011. "Dettes financières et investissement en R&D:une étude comparative," Working Papers CREGO 1110302, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
  11. Vivek Ghosal & Yang Ye, 2013. "Business Decision-Making under Uncertainty: Evidence from Employment and Number of Businesses," CESifo Working Paper Series 4312, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Fryges, Helmut & Kohn, Karsten & Ullrich, Katrin, 2011. "The Interdependence of R&D Activity and Debt Financing of Young Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 6217, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Elisabeth Müller & Volker Zimmermann, 2009. "The importance of equity finance for R&D activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 303-318, October.
  14. Anjali Kumar & Manuela Francisco, 2005. "Enterprise Size, Financing Patterns, and Credit Constraints in Brazil : Analysis of Data from the Investment Climate Assessment Survey," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7330, October.

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