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Multinationals and the Canadian Innovation Process

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Author Info

  • Baldwin, John R.
  • Hanel, Peter

Abstract

This paper examines whether new views of the multinational that see these firms as decentralizing research and development (R&D) activities abroad to exploit local competencies accord with the activities of multinationals in Canada. The paper describes the innovation regime of multinational firms in Canada by examining the differences between foreign- and domestically owned firms. It focuses on the extent to which R&D is used; the type of R&D activity; the importance of R&D relative to other sources of innovative ideas; whether the use of these other ideas indicates that multinationals are closely tied into local innovation networks; the intensity of innovation; and the use that is made of intellectual property rights to protect innovations from being copied by others. We find that, far from being passively dependent on R&D from their parents, foreign-owned firms in Canada are more active in R&D than the population of Canadian-owned firms. They are also more often involved in R&D collaboration projects both abroad and in Canada. As expected, foreign subsidiaries enjoy the advantage of accessing technology from their parent and sister companies. While multinationals are more closely tied into a network of related firms for innovative ideas than are domestically owned firms, their local R&D unit is a more important source of information for innovation than are these inter-firm links. Surprisingly, foreign subsidiaries also more frequently report that they are using technology from unrelated firms. Moreover, the multinational is just as likely to develop links into a local university and other local innovation consortia as are domestically owned firms. This evidence indicates that multinationals in Canada are not, on the whole, operating subsidiaries whose scientific development capabilities are truncated - at least not in comparison to domestically owned firms. A comparison of the extent and impact of innovation activity of domestically and foreign-owned firms shows that foreign-owned firms innovate in all sectors more frequently than Canadian-owned companies in almost all size categories. They are also more likely to introduce world-first rather than more imitative innovations. Their superiority is most pronounced in the consumer goods sector. Finally, foreign-owned firms are more likely to protect their innovations with patent protection. The paper also compares foreign subsidiaries to Canadian corporations that have an international orientation. These additional comparisons show that the two groups of multinationals are quite similar, both with regards to the likelihood that they conduct some form of R&D and that they introduce innovations. These results indicate that it is as much the degree of globalization that the nationality of ownership that affects the degree of innovativeness. Overall, the survey results suggest that foreign-owned firms make a significant contribution to technological progress and innovation

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series with number 2000151e.

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Date of creation: 27 Jun 2000
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3e:2000151e

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Related research

Keywords: Business ownership; Business performance and ownership; Innovation; Science and technology;

References

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  1. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
  2. Baldwin, John R. & Diverty, Brent, 1995. "Advanced Technology Use in Canadian Manufacturing Establishments," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995085e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  3. Teece, David J., 1986. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 285-305, December.
  4. Saunders, Ronald, 1980. "The Determinants of Productivity in Canadian Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 167-84, December.
  5. Steven Globerman & John C. Ries & Ilan Vertinsky, 1994. "The Economic Performance of Foreign Affiliates in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(1), pages 143-56, February.
  6. Baldwin, John R., 1997. "The Importance of Research and Development for Innovation in Small and Large Canadian Manufacturing Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1997107e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  7. Richard Levin & Peter C. Reiss, 1984. "Tests of a Schumpeterian Model of R&D and Market Structure," NBER Chapters, in: R & D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 175-208 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Baldwin, John R. & Raffiquzzaman, Mohammed, 1998. "The Effect of Technology and Trade on Wage Differentials Between Nonproduction and Production Workers in Canadian Manufacturing," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1998098e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  9. Serapio Jr., Manuel G. & Dalton, Donald H., 1999. "Globalization of industrial R&D: an examination of foreign direct investments in R&D in the United States," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2-3), pages 303-316, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jean-Marie Nkongolo-Bakenda & Robert Anderson & Jack Ito & Garnet Garven, 2010. "Structural and competitive determinants of globally oriented small- and medium-sized enterprises: An empirical analysis," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 55-86, March.
  2. Vitor Trindade & Johannes Moenius, 2007. "Networks, Standards and Intellectual Property Rights," Working Papers 0705, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  3. Brown, W. Mark & Beckstead, Desmond & Baldwin, John R., 2003. "Hollowing-out, Trimming-down or Scaling-up? An Analysis of Head Offices in Canada, 1999 to 2002," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2003019e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  4. Petr Hanel, 2000. "R&D, Interindustry and International Technology Spillovers and the Total Factor Productivity Growth of Manufacturing Industries in Canada, 1974-1989," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 345-361.
  5. Steiner, Bodo E. & Ali, Jolene, 2009. "Regional Food Clusters and Government Support for Clustering: Evidence for a ‘Dynamic Food Innovation Cluster’ in Alberta, Canada?," Staff Paper Series 99705, University of Alberta, Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology.
  6. Richard Dion & Robert Fay, 2008. "Understanding Productivity: A Review of Recent Technical Research," Discussion Papers 08-3, Bank of Canada.
  7. Masao Nakamura & Masao Nakamura & Harry Nelson & Ilan Vertinsky, 2003. "Cooperative R&D and the Canadian forest products industry," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(2-3), pages 147-169.
  8. Petr Hanel, 2007. "Productivity and innovation: an overview of the issues," Cahiers de recherche 07-22, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  9. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R., 2003. "Participation in Export Markets and Productivity Performance in Canadian Manufacturing," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2003011e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.

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