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Richer and cleaner - at others' expense?

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  • Taran Fæhn
  • Annegrete Bruvoll

    ()
    (Statistics Norway)

Abstract

Pollution intensive production can be avoided domestically by increased imports and less exports of dirty products. Such trade effects may imply more emissions abroad, or pollution leakages. We study whether such leakages may contribute to the observed inverted relationship between emissions and economic growth - the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). In our case, the rich, open Norwegian economy, we find little evidence for the hypothesis that pollution leakages contribute to explain the EKC. Despite an observed decoupling of emissions from economic growth over the past 20 years, there was no increase in pollution leakages over this period. Rather, emissions related to export increased far more than the foreign emissions embodied in import, implying reduced leakages. In future projections, we find a lower degree of decoupling than in the past, but no corresponding reductions in leakages. Instead, leakages increase. This conclusion is fairly invariant to assumptions about future climate policy.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Department of Statistics Norway in its series Discussion Papers with number 477.

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Date of creation: Sep 2006
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Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:477

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Keywords: Climate policy; dynamic CGE model; endogenous policy; Environmental Kuznets Curve; pollution leakage;

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References

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  1. Stina Hökby & Tore Söderqvist, 2003. "Elasticities of Demand and Willingness to Pay for Environmental Services in Sweden," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 26(3), pages 361-383, November.
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  9. Annegrete Bruvoll & Taran F�hn & Birger Str¯m, 2003. "Quantifying Central Hypotheses on Environmental Kuznets Curves for a Rich Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Study," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 50(2), pages 149-173, 05.
  10. Suri, Vivek & Chapman, Duane, 1998. "Economic growth, trade and energy: implications for the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 195-208, May.
  11. Muradian, Roldan & O'Connor, Martin & Martinez-Alier, Joan, 2002. "Embodied pollution in trade: estimating the 'environmental load displacement' of industrialised countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 51-67, April.
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  15. Annegrete Bruvoll & Hege Medin, 2000. "Factoring the environmental Kuznets curve Evidence from Norway," Discussion Papers 275, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
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Cited by:
  1. Schinko, Thomas & Bednar-Friedl, Birgit & Steininger, Karl W. & Grossmann, Wolf D., 2014. "Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 818-831.
  2. Yushi Yoshida & Satoshi Honma, 2011. "Did International Trade Become Dirtier in Developing Countries? On the Composition Effect of International Trade on the Environment," Discussion Papers 52, Kyushu Sangyo University, Faculty of Economics.
  3. Cui, Cathy Xin & Ha, Soo Jung & Hanley, Nicholas & McGregor, Peter G & Turner, Karen & Yin, Ya Ping, 2011. "Productivity Growth, Decoupling and Pollution Leakage," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2011-13, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  4. Catherine Boulatoff & Michael Jenkins, 2010. "Long-term Nexus Between Openness, Income, and Environmental Quality," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 410-418, November.
  5. Satoshi Honma & Yushi Yoshida, 2012. "An Empirical Investigation of the Balance of Embodied Emission in Trade:Industry Structure and Emission Abatement," Discussion Papers 57, Kyushu Sangyo University, Faculty of Economics.
  6. Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Veronika Kulmer & Thomas Schinko, 2012. "The effectiveness of anti-leakage policies in the European Union: results for Austria," Empirica, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 233-260, May.

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