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Birds of a feather cannot always flock together: Essays on the socio-economic impacts of local diversity

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  • Camille Hémet

    (Aix-Marseille School of Economics)

Abstract

La diversité reflète le fait que les membres d’une communauté diffèrent selon certaines caractéristiques, liées à l'origine ethnique, au statut socio-économique ou à la culture. L’essor du commerce et l'intégration économique placent les sociétés modernes face à des niveaux de diversité croissants. Cette thèse évalue l’impact social et économique de la diversité locale. elle montre comment la diversité d’un quartier influe sur les conditions de vie et les perspectives d'emploi de ses habitants. Ce travail contribue à la littérature de trois façons: il examine des questions inexplorées à un niveau très local, révèle les mécanismes sous-jacents et fournit de nouvelles méthodes pour aborder la question de l'endogénéité. Le chapitre 1 montre que la diversité des origines a un effet négatif sur la qualité des biens publics locaux, du fait d’actes de vandalisme liés à un manque de pression des pairs, et du fait de l'échec de l'action collective qui permettrait une gestion efficace de la propriété. Aucun effet robuste sur la sécurité publique n’est à noter. Le chapitre 2 révèle que l'effet du chômage sur la criminalité a une dimension spatiale. Pour les crimes économiques, le taux de chômage des quartiers environnants a un effet plus fort que celui du voisinage immédiat, l'inverse étant vrai pour vandalisme. Le chapitre 3 montre que les personnes vivant dans un quartier plus diversifié ont des perspectives d'emploi inférieures, cet effet étant plus lié à la dimension culturelle qu’ethnique de la diversité. Le chapitre 4 développe un modèle rationalisant le recours des minorités ethniques à l'économie informelle en réponse à des conditions défavorables sur le marché du travail.

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Paper provided by Sciences Po in its series Sciences Po publications with number info:hdl:2441/6o65lgig8d0qcro9oj5ak8gr4.

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Length: 209 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/6o65lgig8d0qcro9oj5ak8gr4

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Keywords: diversité ethnique et culturelle; conditions de vie; relations sociales; chômage; ethnic and cultural diversity; living conditions social; relationships; unemployment;

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  1. Claudia Senik & Thierry Verdier, 2011. "Segregation, entrepreneurship and work values: the case of France," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 1207-1234, October.
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  7. Spenkuch, Jörg L., 2010. "Understanding the Impact of Immigration on Crime," MPRA Paper 22864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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  12. Zenou, Yves, 2013. "Spatial versus social mismatch," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 113-132.
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  14. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
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