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Cambios en el ingreso del hogar y sus efectos sobre la escolaridad de menores (Argentina, 1995-2003)

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  • Jorge A. Paz

    (Instituto de Estudios Laborales y del Desarrollo Económico (IELDE), Facultad de Ceiencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Argentina)

Abstract

En este artículo se examinan los determinantes del uso del tiempo de los menores con especial referencia a los que tienen que ver con choques (idiosincrásicos o globales) adversos al bienestar de los hogares. Muchos de los hogares que ven resentidos sus ingresos por algún motivo apelan a la fuerza de trabajo de los cónyuges con el objetivo de lograr un consumo más plano. Al parecer, los hogares que movilizan fuerza laboral de sus cónyuges recuperan, aunque más no sea parte, del ingreso perdido y este efecto es más fuerte en los hogares de estrato socioeconómico más bajo. Habida cuenta de estos resultados de corto plazo, el interrogante que guía la elaboración de este artículo es el siguiente: ¿El uso de las estrategias basadas en la fuerza laboral de reserva entraña costos de largo plazo? Una forma de abordar este problema es examinando primero si los choques que enfrenta el hogar precipitan la entrada al mercado de trabajo de niños y jóvenes, y siendo este el caso, si dicha participación ejerce algún efecto sobre el nivel y la calidad del proceso de acumulación de capital humano que se lleva adelante en estas edades. Pero dado que la interrupción de la escolaridad de un menor es un hecho final y extremo de un proceso, se examinan otras respuestas que alteran la calidad del capital humano adquirido y que son directamente observables con las variables tradicionales.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto de Estudios Laborales y del Desarrollo Económico (IELDE) - Universidad Nacional de Salta - Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Jurídicas y Sociales in its series Working Papers with number 2.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:slt:wpaper:2

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Web page: http://www.economicas.unsa.edu.ar/ielde
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Keywords: Trabajo infantil; Choques de ingresos; Capital humano;

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  1. Kochar, Anjini, 1995. "Explaining Household Vulnerability to Idiosyncratic Income Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 159-64, May.
  2. Alejandro Gaviria Uribe, 2001. "Household Responses to Adverse Income Shocks in Latin America," INFORMES DE INVESTIGACIÓN 002795, FEDESARROLLO.
  3. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
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  7. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999. "Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2116, The World Bank.
  8. Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2003. "Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints," NBER Working Papers 10088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. King, Elizabeth M. & Lillard, Lee A., 1987. "Education policy and schooling attainment in Malaysia and the Philippines," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 167-181, April.
  10. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  11. Schady, Norbert R., 2002. "The (positive) effect of macroeconomic crises on the schoolingand employment decisions of children in a middle-income country," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2762, The World Bank.
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