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Moonlighting over the Business Cycle

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  • Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes

    ()
    (Department of Economics, San Diego State University)

  • Jean Kimmel

    (Department of Economics, Western Michigan University)

Abstract

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the cyclicality of moonlighting by gender. We estimate a random effects Tobit model of moonlighting among working men and women and find that, while male moonlighting behavior does not fluctuate significantly with the business cycle, female moonlighting does. The cyclicality of female moonlighting has, nonetheless, varied over the course of the past 35 years. Female moonlighting seemed to behave counter-cyclically during much of the 1980s and early 1990s, confirming the popular media belief that moonlighting is more likely to occur during periods of economic distress. Yet, this counter-cyclical behavior disappears during the 1993-99 period to become pro-cyclical by the early twentieth century. The recent pro-cyclicality of female moonlighting supports the idea that female workers respond to a need for “just-in-time” employment following the economic upturn of the mid to late 1990s.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by San Diego State University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 0028.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:sds:wpaper:0028

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  1. Patricia M. Anderson & Bruce D. Meyer, 2003. "Unemployment Insurance Tax Burdens and Benefits: Funding Family Leave and Reforming the Payroll Tax," NBER Working Papers 10043, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Paul J. Devereux, 2001. "The Cyclicality of real wages within employer-employee matches," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(4), pages 835-850, July.
  3. Smith Conway, Karen & Kimmel, Jean, 1998. "Male labor supply estimates and the decision to moonlight," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 135-166, June.
  4. repec:ese:iserwp:2004-03 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Hart, Robert A., 2006. "Real Wage Cyclicality of Female Stayers and Movers in Part-Time and Full-Time Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 2364, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Mark Partridge, 2002. "Moonlighting in a High Growth Economy: Evidence from U.S. State-Level Data," Growth and Change, Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, vol. 33(4), pages 424-452.
  7. Bell, David & Hart, Robert A & Wright, Robert E, 1997. "Multiple Job Holding as a 'Hedge' Against Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 1626, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Böheim, René & Taylor, Mark P., 2004. "And in the Evening She's a Singer with the Band – Second Jobs, Plight or Pleasure?," IZA Discussion Papers 1081, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Julie L. Hotchkiss & John C. Robertson, 2006. "Asymmetric labor force participation decisions over the business cycle: evidence from U.S. microdata," Working Paper 2006-08, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  10. Keane, Michael & Moffitt, Robert & Runkle, David, 1988. "Real Wages over the Business Cycle: Estimating the Impact of Heterogeneity with Micro Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(6), pages 1232-66, December.
  11. Spletzer, James R, 1997. "Reexamining the Added Worker Effect," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(2), pages 417-27, April.
  12. Moulton, Brent R., 1986. "Random group effects and the precision of regression estimates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 385-397, August.
  13. Jean Kimmel & Karen Smith Conway, 1995. "Who Moonlights and Why?: Evidence from the SIPP," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 95-40, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  14. Jean Kimmel & Lisa M. Powell, 1999. "Moonlighting Trends and Related Policy Issues in Canada and the United States," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(2), pages 207-231, June.
  15. Susan Averett, 2001. "Moonlighting: multiple motives and gender differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(11), pages 1391-1410.
  16. W. David Allen, 1998. "The moonlighting decision of unmarried men and women: Family and labor market influences," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 26(2), pages 190-205, June.
  17. Heineck, Guido & Schwarze, Johannes, 2004. "Fly Me to the Moon: The Determinants of Secondary Jobholding in Germany and the UK," IZA Discussion Papers 1358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
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