The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San "bushmen" community
AbstractThe restitution of land to the Khomani San "bushmen" and Mier "agricultural" communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi area in South Africa. The Khomani San and Mier communities were awarded land inside and outside the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Given that the Khomani San interact more with nature, biodiversity conservation will only benefit from the land restitution in this case if the Khomani San are good environmental stewards. Therefore, this paper uses the contingent valuation method to investigate the values assigned to biodiversity conserved under the various forms of land tenure arrangements by the Khomani San in the Kgalagadi area and compares them to similar valuations by the adjacent Mier community. The proposed conservation programme sought to plant as many native trees, shrubs and grasslands as required to reduce biodiversity loss by 10% in terms of the quantities of each of the selected major species of the area. Despite the fact that the conservation programme has both winners and losers when implemented under any of the three land tenure arrangements considered, the findings suggest that the Khomani San, whose attitudes towards modern conservation have not been evaluated until now, and the adjacent Mier community generally attach a significant economic value to biodiversity in their area. The net economic value for conserving biodiversity under the various forms of land tenure arrangements by the Khomani San ranged from R928 to R4 672 relative to the Mier communityâ€™s range of R25 600 to R64 000. However, for both communities, in order for all members of the local communities to support biodiversity conservation unconditionally, mechanisms for fair distribution of the associated costs and benefits should be put in place.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Economic Research Southern Africa in its series Working Papers with number 257.
Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Newlands on Main, F0301 3rd Floor Mariendahl House, cnr Campground and Main Rds, Claremont, 7700 Cape Town
Phone: 021 671-3980
Fax: +27 21 671 3912
Web page: http://www.econrsa.org/
More information through EDIRC
biodiversity; contingent valuation; Khomani San; Kgalagadi; land restitution;
Other versions of this item:
- Dikgang, Johane & Muchapondwa, Edwin, 2012. "The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San “bushmen” community," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 7-14.
- Dikgang, Johane & Muchapondwa, Edwin, 2012. "The Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “Bushmen” Community," Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future dp-12-10-efd, Resources For the Future.
- Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
- Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
- Q57 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Ecological Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AFR-2011-11-28 (Africa)
- NEP-AGR-2011-11-28 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2011-11-28 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENV-2011-11-28 (Environmental Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fay, Derick, 2009. "Land Tenure, Land Use, and Land Reform at Dwesa-Cwebe, South Africa: Local Transformations and the Limits of the State," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1424-1433, August.
- Shogren, Jason F. & Seung Y. Shin & Dermot J. Hayes & James B. Kliebenstein, 1994.
"Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept,"
American Economic Review, American Economic Association,
American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 255-70, March.
- Shogren, Jason F. & Shin, Seung Youll & Hayes, Dermot J. & Kliebenstein, James, 1994. "Resolving Differences in Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept," Staff General Research Papers 701, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- John M. Gowdy & Richard Howarth & Clem Tisdell, 2010. "The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundations," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics 1008, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Edwin Muchapondwa & Fredrik Carlsson & Gunnar Köhlin, 2008. "Wildlife Management In Zimbabwe: Evidence From A Contingent Valuation Study," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 76(4), pages 685-704, December.
- Nick Hanley & Sergio Colombo & Bengt Kriström & Fiona Watson, 2009.
"Accounting for Negative, Zero and Positive Willingness to Pay for Landscape Change in a National Park,"
Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 1-16.
- Colombo, Sergio & Hanley, Nicholas & Kristrom, Bengt & Watson, Fiona, 2008. "Accounting for Negative, Zero and Positive Willingness to Pay for Landscape Change in a National Park," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers, University of Stirling, Division of Economics 2008-10, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
- Pamela Kaval & Richard Yao & Terry Parminter, 2007. "The Value of Native Biodiversity Enhancement in New Zealand: A Case Study of the Greater Wellington Area," Working Papers in Economics, University of Waikato, Department of Economics 07/22, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
- Clinch, J Peter & Murphy, Anthony, 2001. "Modelling Winners and Losers in Contingent Valuation of Public Goods: Appropriate Welfare Measures and Econometric Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(470), pages 420-43, April.
- Shyamsundar, Priya & Kramer, Randall A., 1996. "Tropical Forest Protection: An Empirical Analysis of the Costs Borne by Local People," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 129-144, September.
- Munro, Alistair, 2007. "When is some number really better than no number? On the optimal choice between non-market valuation methods," MPRA Paper 8978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- K hlin, Gunnar, 2001. "Contingent valuation in project planning and evaluation: the case of social forestry in Orissa, India," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(02), pages 237-258, May.
- Mekonnen, Alemu, 2000. "Valuation of community forestry in Ethiopia: a contingent valuation study of rural households," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(03), pages 289-308, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Yoemna Mosaval).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.