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Who Does the Shopping? – German Time-use Evidence, 1996–2009

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  • Vivien Procher

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  • Colin Vance
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    Abstract

    The labor force participation rate of women and men is converging in industrialized countries, but disparities nevertheless remain with respect to unpaid activities. Shopping for household maintenance, in particular, is a time-consuming, out-of-home activity that continues to be undertaken primarily by women, irrespective of their employment status. The present study employs panel methods to analyze, descriptively and econometrically, gender disparities in shopping behavior among couples using data from the German Mobility Panel (MOP) for 1996 to 2009. While women still shop more than men, we find evidence that the differential has narrowed in recent years, particularly among couples with children. Several individual and household characteristics are found to be significant determinants of shopping behavior, whereby employment status and children emerge as the most important single factors. In addition, the possession of a driver’s license coupled with unrestricted car availability increase each partner’s time in shopping.

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    File URL: http://repec.rwi-essen.de/files/REP_13_393.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen in its series Ruhr Economic Papers with number 0393.

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    Length: 17 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:rwi:repape:0393

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    Keywords: Shopping; Time-use; gender differences;

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    References

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    1. Hersch, Joni & Stratton, Leslie S, 1994. "Housework, Wages, and the Division of Housework Time for Employed Spouses," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 120-25, May.
    2. Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-94, September.
    3. Lois, David & López-Sáez, Mercedes, 2009. "The relationship between instrumental, symbolic and affective factors as predictors of car use: A structural equation modeling approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(9-10), pages 790-799, November.
    4. Jappelli, Tullio & Pistaferri, Luigi, 2010. "The Consumption Response to Income Changes," CEPR Discussion Papers 7680, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Gunseli Berik & Ebru Kongar, 2012. "Time Use of Mothers and Fathers in Hard Times: The US Recession of 2007-09," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_726, Levy Economics Institute.
    6. Hsiao, Ming-Hsiung, 2009. "Shopping mode choice: Physical store shopping versus e-shopping," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 86-95, January.
    7. Yun, Dae-Sic & O'Kelly, M. E., 1997. "Modeling the day-of-the-week shopping activity and travel patterns," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 307-319, December.
    8. Morrill, Melinda Sandler & Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff, 2012. "What Effects Do Macroeconomic Conditions Have on Families' Time Together?," IZA Discussion Papers 6529, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Susan Handy & Kelly Clifton, 2001. "Local shopping as a strategy for reducing automobile travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 317-346, November.
    10. Xinyu Cao & Zhiyi Xu & Frank Douma, 2012. "The interactions between e-shopping and traditional in-store shopping: an application of structural equations model," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(5), pages 957-974, September.
    11. Mark A. Aguiar & Erik Hurst & Loukas Karabarbounis, 2011. "Time Use During Recessions," NBER Working Papers 17259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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