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Efficient Risk-Taking and Regulatory Covenant Enforcement in a Deregulated Banking Industry

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Author Info

  • Joseph P. Hughes

    ()
    (Rutgers University)

  • Choon-Geol Moon

    ()
    (Hanyang University)

  • Robert DeYoung

    ()
    (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago)

Abstract

Over the past two decades, a variety of deregulatory measures have increased competition in the U.S. commercial banking industry. While increased competitive rivalry creates incentives for banks to operate more efficiently, it also creates incentives for banks to take additional risk, potentially threatening the safety of banking and payments system. Commercial bank regulators have responded to this increased potential for risk-taking by formally linking bank supervision and regulation to the level of risks that banks take. In this study we analyze the safety and soundness (CAMEL) ratings assigned by bank supervisors to commercial banks, and search for evidence that these ratings reflect not just the level of risk taken by banks, but also the risk-taking efficiency of those banks (i.e., whether taking an increased level of risk generates higher expected returns). We find that supervisors do distinguish between the risk-taking of efficient banks and the risk-taking of inefficient banks, and that they permit efficient banks more latitude in their investment strategies than inefficient banks. However, we also find that supervisors maintain incentives for both efficient and inefficient banks to manage their risk more efficiently.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Rutgers University, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 200007.

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Date of creation: 27 Jun 2000
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Handle: RePEc:rut:rutres:200007

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References

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  1. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
  2. Allen N. Berger & Sally M. Davies & Mark J. Flannery, 1998. "Comparing market and supervisory assessments of bank performance: who knows what when?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-32, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
  4. Hughes, Joseph P. & Lang, William W. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol, 1999. "The dollars and sense of bank consolidation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 291-324, February.
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  7. R. Alton Gilbert, 1993. "Implications of annual examinations for the Bank Insurance Fund," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 35-52.
  8. Hughes, Joseph P, et al, 1996. "Efficient Banking under Interstate Branching," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 1045-71, November.
  9. Joseph P. Hughes & William Lang, 1997. "Recovering Technologies That Account for Generalized Managerial Preferences: An Application to Non-Risks-Neutral Banks," Departmental Working Papers 199521, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  10. DeYoung, Robert & Hasan, Iftekhar & Kirchhoff, Bruce, 1998. "The Impact of Out-of-State Entry on the Cost Efficiency of Local Commercial Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 191-203, March.
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  14. Joseph P. Hughes, 1997. "Bank Capitalization and Cost: Evidence of Scale Economies in Risk Management and Signaling," Departmental Working Papers 199601, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  15. Santomero, Anthony M, 1984. "Modeling the Banking Firm: A Survey," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 576-602, November.
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  19. Robert DeYoung & Mark J. Flannery & William W. Lang & Sorin M. Sorescu, 1998. "The informational advantage of specialized monitors: the case of bank examiners," Working Paper Series WP-98-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  20. Rebel Cole & Jeffery Gunther, 1998. "Predicting Bank Failures: A Comparison of On- and Off-Site Monitoring Systems," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 103-117, April.
  21. James, Christopher, 1987. "Some evidence on the uniqueness of bank loans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 217-235, December.
  22. Rebecca S. Demsetz & Marc R. Saidenberg & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "Banks with something to lose: the disciplinary role of franchise value," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 1-14.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2013. "Measuring the performance of banks: theory, practice, evidence, and some policy implications," Working Papers 13-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  2. Jeitschko, Thomas D. & Jeung, Shin Dong, 2005. "Incentives for risk-taking in banking - A unified approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 759-777, March.
  3. Manuel Illueca & José Pastor & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2009. "The effects of geographic expansion on the productivity of Spanish savings banks," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 119-143, October.
  4. Jacob A. Bikker & Jaap W.B. Bos, 2005. "Trends in Competition and Profitability in the Banking Industry: A Basic Framework," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2005/2 edited by Morten Balling.
  5. Gabriel Asaftei & Subal Kumbhakar, 2008. "Regulation and efficiency in transition: the case of Romanian banks," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 253-282, June.
  6. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2012. "A Primer on Market Discipline and Governance of Financial Institutions for Those in a State of Shocked Disbelief," Departmental Working Papers 201204, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  7. Cecile Casteuble & Emmanuelle Nys & Philippe Rous, 2013. "Bank Risk - Return Efficiency and Bond Spread: Is There Evidence of Market Discipline in Europe," Working Papers hal-00916717, HAL.
  8. Joseph P. Hughes & William W. Lang & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon & Michael S. Pagano, 2002. "Do Bankers Sacrifice Value to Build Empires? Managerial Incentives, Industry Consolidation and Financial Performance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-18, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  9. Changchun Hua & Li-Gang Liu, 2010. "Risk-return Efficiency, Financial Distress Risk, and Bank Financial Strength Ratings," Finance Working Papers 22756, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  10. Joseph P. Hughes, 2011. "The Elusive Scale Economies of the Largest Banks and their Implications for Global Competitiveness," Departmental Working Papers 201134, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  11. Li-Gang Liu & Changchun Hua, 2010. "Risk-return Efficiency, Financial Distress Risk, and Bank Financial Strength Ratings," Working Papers id:2944, eSocialSciences.
  12. Koetter, Michael, 2006. "The stability of efficiency rankings when risk-preferences and objectives are different," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2006,08, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  13. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2008. "Efficiency in banking: theory, practice, and evidence," Working Papers 08-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

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