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The Environmental Kuznets Curve: some really disturbing Monte Carlo evidence

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  • T. VERBEKE

    ()

  • M. DE CLERCQ

    ()

Abstract

The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis posits an inverse U- shaped relation between environmental pollution and income. The empirical literature has largely ignored the time series properties of the data used to test the EKC. This paper uses Monte Carlo experiments to analyse whether the order of integration influences the EKC empirical strategy. We show that if the variables used are I(1), the results will spuriously confirm the EKC hypothesis in 40% of the cases. Furthermore, accepting the EKC also influences the critical values for the rejection of no cointegration in the Engle- Granger framework.

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File URL: http://www.feb.ugent.be/nl/Ondz/wp/Papers/wp_04_242.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration in its series Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium with number 04/242.

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Length: 44 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rug:rugwps:04/242

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Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis; I(1); cointegration; monte carlo;

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  1. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
  2. David I. Stern & Tony Auld & Michael S. Common & Kali K. Sanyal, 1998. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for sulfur?," Working Papers in Ecological Economics 9804, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
  3. Junsoo Lee & John List, 2004. "Examining Trends of Criteria Air Pollutants: Are the Effects of Governmental Intervention Transitory?," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 29(1), pages 21-37, September.
  4. Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-73, Supplemen.
  5. Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
  6. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Thomas M. Selden, 1992. "Stoking the Fires? Co2 Emissions and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 4248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Stern , David I., 1998. "Progress on the environmental Kuznets curve?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 173-196, May.
  8. William T. Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Molloy Wilson, 2002. "Reexamining The Empirical Evidence For An Environmental Kuznets Curve," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 541-551, August.
  9. Perman, Roger & Stern, David I., 2003. "Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not exist," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(3), September.
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