Overall Specialization and Income: Countries Diversify
AbstractThis paper gives evidence to a stylized fact often disregarded in international trade empirics: countries' diversification. In the last fifteen years, the growth of world trade coexisted with the tendency of countries to reduce the specialization of their export composition along the development path. On average, countries do not specialize, they diversify. Our semiparametric empirical analysis shows how this result is robust to the use of different statistical indexes used to measure trade specialization to the level of sectoral aggregation and to the level of smoothing in the nonparametric term associated to income per capita. Using a General Additive Model (GAM) with country-specific fixed-effect, we show that, controlling for countries heterogeneity, sectoral export diversification increases with income.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Sapienza University of Rome, CIDEI in its series Working Papers with number 73.
Date of creation:
Date of revision:
International Trade; Specialization; Development; Generalized Additive Models;
Other versions of this item:
- Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, 2006. "Overall Specialization and Income: Countries Diversity," Working Papers 37-2006, Macerata University, Department of Finance and Economic Sciences, revised Oct 2008.
- C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
- E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
- F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-02-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2007-02-03 (Development)
- NEP-INT-2007-02-03 (International Trade)
- NEP-MAC-2007-02-03 (Macroeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrea Brasili & Paolo Epifani & Rodolfo Helg, 2000.
"On the Dynamics of Trade Patterns,"
KITeS Working Papers
115, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2000.
- John DiNardo & Justin L. Tobias, 2001.
"Nonparametric Density and Regression Estimation,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 11-28, Fall.
- Marius Brülhart, 1998. "Trading Places: Industrial Specialization in the European Union," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 319-346, 09.
- Mary Amiti, 1997.
"Specialisation Patterns in Europe,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0363, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Mary Amiti, 1999. "Specialization patterns in Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 135(4), pages 573-593, December.
- James Proudman & Stephen Redding, 2000.
"Evolving patterns of international trade,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
206, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Kalemli-Ozcan, S. & Sorensen, B.E. & Yosha, O., 1999.
"Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence,"
16-99, Tel Aviv.
- Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sørensen & Oved Yosha, 2003. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 903-918, June.
- Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. S�rensen & Oved Yosha, 1999. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," Working Papers 99-16, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Sorensen, Bent E & Yosha, Oved, 1999. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2295, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sorensen & Oved Yosha, 1999. "Risk Sharing and Industrial Specialization: Regional and International Evidence," JCPR Working Papers 86, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan & Bent E. Sorensen & Oved Yosha, 2000. "Risk sharing and industrial specialization ; regional and international evidence," Research Working Paper RWP 00-06, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
- Imbs, Jean & Wacziarg, Romain, 2000.
"Stages of Diversification,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2642, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Redding, Stephen, 2002.
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 299-334, December.
- Peretto, Pietro F., 2000.
"Endogenous market structure and the growth and welfare effects of economic integration,"
00-14, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Peretto, Pietro F., 2003. "Endogenous market structure and the growth and welfare effects of economic integration," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 177-201, May.
- Christian Broda & David W. Weinstein, 2004. "Variety Growth and World Welfare," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 139-144, May.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "Putting Things In Order: Trade Dynamics And Product Cycles," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 369-382, August.
- Miklos Koren & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Diversification and development," Working Papers 03-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 1997.
"Was Prometheus Unbound by Chance? Risk, Diversification, and Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(4), pages 709-51, August.
- Acemoglu, Daron & Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 1996. "Was Prometheus Unbound by Chance? Risk, Diversification and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 1426, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Daron Acemoglu & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 1994. "Was Prometheus unbound by chance? Risk, diversification and growth," Economics Working Papers 98, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Luca De Benedictis & Marco Gallegati & Massimo Tamberi, 2007. "Semiparametric analysis of the specialization-income relationship," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 301-306.
- Krugman, Paul, 1987. "The narrow moving band, the Dutch disease, and the competitive consequences of Mrs. Thatcher : Notes on trade in the presence of dynamic scale economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1-2), pages 41-55, October.
- Stokey, Nancy L, 1988.
"Learning by Doing and the Introduction of New Goods,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(4), pages 701-17, August.
- Nancy L Stokey, 1986. "Learning-by-Doing and the Introduction of New Goods," Discussion Papers 699, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science, revised May 1987.
- Luca De Benedictis & Massimo Tamberi, 2004. "Overall Specialization Empirics: Techniques and Applications," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 323-346, October.
- Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2006. "Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_022, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö & Neil Foster-McGregor & Doris Hanzl-Weiss & Petri Rouvinen & Timo Seppälä & Robert Stehrer & Roman Stöllinger & Pekka Ylä-Anttila, 2011. "Trade in Intermediate Products and EU Manufacturing Supply Chains," wiiw Research Reports 369, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
- Jorge Braga de Macedo & Luís Brites Pereira, 2010.
"Cape Verde and Mozambique as Development Successes in West and Southern Africa,"
NBER Working Papers
16552, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jorge Braga de Macedo & Luís Brites Pereira, 2014. "Cape Verde and Mozambique as Development Successes in West and Southern Africa," NBER Chapters, in: African Successes: Sustainable Growth National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- João Amador & Sónia Cabral & José R. Maria, 2007. "Export Specialization Over the Last Four Decades: How Does Portugal Compare With Other Cohesion Countries?," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Cabral, Manuel Heredia Caldeira & Veiga, Paula, 2010. "Determinants Of Export Diversification And Sophistication In Sub-Saharan Africa," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp550, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
- Aleksandra PARTEKA, 2007.
"Employment and Export Specialization Patterns versus GDP Per Capita Performance - Unifying Approach,"
302, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Aleksandra Parteka, 2010. "Employment and export specialisation along the development path: some robust evidence," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(4), pages 615-640, January.
- João Amador & Sónia Cabral & José R. Maria, 2007.
"International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?,"
w200714, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Amador, João & Cabral, Sónia & Ramos Maria, José, 2007. "International Trade Patterns over the Last Four Decades: How does Portugal Compare with other Cohesion Countries?," MPRA Paper 5996, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Giuseppe De Arcangelis).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.