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Giuseppe Gorani (1740-1819) et les réformes.la physiocratie à l’italienne (The Italian Physiocracy: Giuseppe Gorani (1740-1819) and the reforms)

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  • Maria Vitali-Volant

    ()
    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    L’Italie ne commence à sortir de la crise économique et politique dans laquelle est plongée au début du XVIIIe siècle que vers le milieu du siècle. L’agriculture, l’industrie et le commerce s’épanouissent et demandent des réformes institutionnelles importantes. L’économie politique (l’étude des problèmes monétaires et financiers) voit le jour. Certaines personnalités s’engagent dans la pensée de la réforme sur le plan idéologique. Parmi elles, le comte Giuseppe Gorani (Milan 1740-Genève 1819). Inspiré de Rousseau, Gorani oppose à la tyrannie le gouvernement d’un despote éclairé, et prône la lutte contre les corps intermédiaires, les privilèges de caste et la propriété. Gorani cite l’« ordre naturel » de la pensée physiocratique et revient sur le concept du droit de propriété, exalte la liberté absolue du commerce, la lutte contre les règlements, les impôts et les autres inventions du fisc qui détruisent le commerce et l’agriculture, et préconise une grande circulation des richesses et des investissements par les possédants et par l’Etat. Gorani vise aussi la formation de « l’homme social » en harmonie avec le monde. Ses traités d’économie politique manifestent son esprit de révolte contre la société arriérée de l’Ancien Régime, contre les préjugés et le cléricalisme. The economic and political crisis in which Italy is embedded at the beginning of the 18th century ends at the midst of century. Agriculture, industry and commerce gain ground and need important institutional reforms. Political economy (the study of monetary and financial problems) was born. Some people adopt the thought of reform on an ideological point of view. Among these is the count Giuseppe Gorani (Milan 1740 - Geneva 1819). Inspired by Rousseau, Gorani opposes to the tyranny the government of an educated despot and recommend fighting against the intermediary classes, castes’ privileges and property. Gorani quotes the “natural order” of the physiocratic thought and criticizes the concept of property right, praises the absolute liberty of commerce, the struggle against rules, taxes and other inventions of the Treasury which destroy commerce and industry, and asks for a larger circulation of wealth and investments by owners and by the State. Gorany also aims at the formation of the “social man” in harmony with the world. His political economy treatises reveal his spirit of rebellion against the behind the times society of the old regime, against preconceptions and clericalism.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 88.

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    Length: 21 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2004
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Novembre 2004
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:88

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    Keywords: Economie; Italie; pensée physiocratique; Giuseppe; Gorani; social/Economy; Italy; physiocratic thought; Giuseppe; Gorani;

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