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brevet, gène et logiciel,les débats en Europe et aux Etats-Unis (Patent, gene and software debates in europe and in the united states)

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  • Blandine Laperche

    ()
    (labrii, ULCO)

Abstract

s'est diffusé au cours des siècles suivants aux pays industriels, c'est aujourd'hui à partir des États-Unis que se diffusent les nouvelles normes de brevetabilité. De nouveaux champs scientifiques et techniques ont été ouverts aux brevets, notamment les biotechnologies et les technologies de l'information avec leurs produits phares : les inventions génétiques et logicielles. En Europe, l'adaptation du cadre juridique est sujette à de multiples controverses, et sa fragmentation nuit à la compétitivité européenne et au rattrapage du retard déjà accumulé sur les États-Unis. Pourtant, l'adaptation du régime européen de propriété industrielle, plus ou moins inspiré du modèle américain, est-elle pertinente ? Cette adaptation pose la question du véritable rôle du brevet (incite-t-il vraiment l'innovation ?). D'autre part, un cadre juridique unifié en matière de propriété industrielle en Europe n'aura-t-il pas pour effet de renforcer les écarts entre les pays qui pourront breveter et ceux… qui ne le pourront pas ? Whereas industrial property right was born in the 16th century in Italy and then, in course of the following centuries, spread through industrial countries, today's new standards of patentability are coming from the US. New scientific and technical fields have been opened to patents, notably biotechnology and Information and communication technology with their key products : genetic and software inventions. In Europe, the adaptation of the legal framework is subject to many debates, and its fragmentation hinders european competitiveness and the catching up of the US development level. However, is it worth adapting the european regime of industrial property on the US model ? Such an adaptation questions the real role of patent (is it really an incitation to innovate ?). In the other hand, isn't this unified legal framework going to reinforce the gap between countries which will be able to patents and those which won't be able to ?

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 62.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2003
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Mars 2003
Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:62

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Keywords: Brevet; gène; logiciel; Europe; Etats Unis/Patente; gene; software; Europe; United states;

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  1. Kortum, Samuel & Lerner, Josh, 1998. "Stronger protection or technological revolution: what is behind the recent surge in patenting?," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 247-304, June.
  2. Adam B. Jaffe, 1999. "The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process," NBER Working Papers 7280, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Lerner, Josh, 1995. "Patenting in the Shadow of Competitors," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(2), pages 463-95, October.
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