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La révolution biotechnologique quand le débat éthique masque les enjeux économiques et industriels

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  • Renaud Bellais

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    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    La commercialisation des plantes transgéniques suscite de vives polémiques sur les implications scientifiques et éthiques des manipulations du génome des plantes. Les questions scientifiques, environnementales et sanitaires masquent toutefois les enjeux économiques sous-jacents. En effet, les biotechno1ogies suscitent un intérêt économique croissant non seulement de la part des firmes, mais aussi des États. Les biotechnologies végétales sont considérées comme un domaine d'avenir, source de croissance économique et d'emplois. Cependant les nouvelles activités sont de plus en plus dominées par les grands groupes de l'agrochimie. Si les petites firmes semblent jouer un rôle crucial dans cette révolution économique, les biotechnologies permettent une recomposition du paysage industriel au bénéfice des grands groupes – remodelant tout en renforçant cet oligopole mondial très concentré. The commercialization of transgenic plants rises several discussions on the scientific and ethical implications of plant-genome manipulations. However the scientific and sanitary questions mask the underlying economic stakes. Actually biotechnology engenders an economic interest not only from corporations, but also from States. Biotechnology, in general and more specifically in agriculture, is considered as a source of economic growth and jobs creation. If small firms seem to play a crucial role in this economic revolu-tion, biotechnology gives the agrochemical giants the opportunity to restructure the industrial landscape to their benefit–remodeling while strengthening this highly concentrated worldwide oligopoly.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 21.

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    Length: 44 pages
    Date of creation: Jan 1999
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    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Janvier 1999
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:21

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    Keywords: biotechnologie végétale; agrochimie; Révolution industrielle; enjeux économiques biotechnology; agrochimistry; agriculture; economic growth;

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