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Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality: Evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1970-1991

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  • Narayan Sastry
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    Abstract

    In this paper, the author examines the effects of social and economic development on inequalities in under-five mortality for the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, over a twenty-one year period during which much of the infant and child mortality transition unfolded. The author investigated whether the improvements in infant and child survival were accompanied by declining inequalities. The author focused on inequality in under-five mortality by household wealth and by mother's education and used microdata from Brazilian censuses conducted in 1970, 1980, and 1991. The author found that inequality according to household wealth underwent a clear decline over the study period. Inequality according to mother's education first declined then increased, with a net rise over the study period. When the author controlled for background demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, inequalities in under-five mortality according to household wealth remained roughly constant. On the other hand, inequality according to mother's education increased substantially.

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    File URL: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/drafts/2008/DRU2934.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by RAND Corporation Publications Department in its series Working Papers with number 02-15.

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    Length: 36 pages
    Date of creation: Dec 2002
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ran:wpaper:02-15

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    1. Julie DaVanzo & Jean-Pierre Habicht, 1986. "Infant mortality decline in Malaysia, 1946–1975: The roles of changes in variables and changes in the structure of relationships," Demography, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 143-160, May.
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    3. Psacharopoulos, George, et al, 1995. "Poverty and Income Inequality in Latin America during the 1980s," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 41(3), pages 245-64, September.
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    5. Wagstaff, Adam, 2002. "Inequalities in health in developing countries - swimming against the tide?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2795, The World Bank.
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    7. Paul Contoyannis & Martin Forster, . "The Distribution of Health and Income: A Theoretical Framework," Discussion Papers 98/22, Department of Economics, University of York.
    8. Levison, D. & Lam, D., 1990. "Declining Inequality In Schooling In Brazil And Its Effects On Inequality In Earning," Papers 618, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    9. Samuel H. Preston & Michael R. Haines, 1991. "Fatal Years: Child Mortality in Late Nineteenth-Century America," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number pres91-1.
    10. Braveman, Paula & Tarimo, Eleuther, 2002. "Social inequalities in health within countries: not only an issue for affluent nations," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 54(11), pages 1621-1635, June.
    11. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
    12. Kakwani, Nanak & Wagstaff, Adam & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 1997. "Socioeconomic inequalities in health: Measurement, computation, and statistical inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 87-103, March.
    13. Wagstaff, Adam & Watanabe, Naoko, 2000. "Socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in the developing world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2434, The World Bank.
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