The emergence of emotions and pro-social and religious sentiments during the September 11 disaster
AbstractAnalysing emotional states under duress or during heightened, life-and-death situations is extremely difficult, especially given the inability of laboratory experiments to adequately replicate the environment and the inherent biases of post event surveys. It is in this area that natural experiments come to the fore by combining the randomization that comes from natural data with an experimentally realistic event. The pager communications from September 11th, made publicly available by Wiki Leaks (Wiki Leaks, 2009), provide exactly the kind of natural experiment emotion researchers have been seeking. We have analysed the pager messages by applying an absolute count methodology and by presenting both positive and negative emotive categories as well as the development of pro-social and religious sentiment. Providing behavioural evidence on how people communicate under extreme circumstances and offers valuable insights into human nature. We demonstrate that positive and pro-social communications are the first to emerge followed by the slower and lower negative communications. Religious sentiment is the last to emerge, as individual attempt to make sense of event.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology in its series School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series with number 273.
Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: 06 Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Content Analysis; Positive Emotion; Negative Emotion; Religiosity; Disaster Communications; 9/11;
Other versions of this item:
- David A. Savage & Benno Torgler, 2011. "The emergence of emotions and pro-social and religious sentiments during the September 11 disaster," CREMA Working Paper Series 2011-20, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
- D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics; Underlying Principles
- D70 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - General
- D64 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Altruism; Philanthropy
- Z12 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Religion
- N30 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - General, International, or Comparative
- Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-10-15 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBE-2011-10-15 (Cognitive & Behavioural Economics)
- NEP-NEU-2011-10-15 (Neuroeconomics)
- NEP-SOC-2011-10-15 (Social Norms & Social Capital)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Glenn W. Harrison & John A. List, 2004.
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1009-1055, December.
- David A. Savage & Benno Torgler, 2013. "THE TIMES THEY ARE A CHANGIN': The eﬀect of institutions on behavior, cooperation, emotional attachment and sentiment at 26,000ft," QuBE Working Papers 014, QUT Business School.
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