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Public Attitudes Toward Corruption and Tax Evasion: Investigating the Role of Gender Over Time

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  • Benno Torgler

    ()

  • Neven T. Valev

Abstract

In recent years the topics of illegal activities such as corruption or tax evasion have attracted a great deal of attention. However, there is still a lack of substantial empirical evidence about the determinants of compliance. The aim of this paper is to investigate empirically whether women are more willing to be compliant than men focusing on corruption and tax evasion and whether we observe (among women and in general) differences in attitudes among similar age groups in different time periods (cohort effect) or changing attitudes of the same cohorts over time (age effect). Method. Thus, this paper will use data from eight Western European countries from the World Values Survey and the European Values Survey that span the period from 1981 to 1999. Results. The results reveal higher willingness to comply among women and an age rather than a cohort effect. Conclusions. Thus, our results are in line with previous studies that found strong gender differences but are not in line with the equality and role theory that would suggest a decrease of gender differences with greater equality of status between men and women over time.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology in its series School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series with number 214.

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Length: 39
Date of creation: 03 Apr 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qut:dpaper:214

Note: Direct correspondence to Benno Torgler, The School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia, email: benno.torgler@qut.edu.au. Benno Torgler will share all data and coding information with those wishing to replicate the study. For advice and suggestions, thanks are due to the editor Robert L. Lineberry and two anonymous referees. Financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation is also gratefully acknowledged.
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Postal: GPO Box 2434, BRISBANE QLD 4001
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Web page: http://www.bus.qut.edu.au/faculty/economics/
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Keywords: corruption; tax evasion; tax compliance; men and women;

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References

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  1. Baldry, Jonathan C, 1987. "Income Tax Evasion and the Tax Schedule: Some Experimental Results," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 42(3), pages 357-83.
  2. Benno Torgler & Friedrich Schneider, 2007. "What Shapes Attitudes Toward Paying Taxes? Evidence from Multicultural European Countries," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 88(2), pages 443-470.
  3. Dollar, David & Fisman, Raymond & Gatti, Roberta, 2001. "Are women really the "fairer" sex? Corruption and women in government," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 423-429, December.
  4. Naci Mocan, 2004. "What Determines Corruption? International Evidence from Micro Data," NBER Working Papers 10460, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Andreoni,J. & Vesterlund,L., 1998. "Which is the fair sex? : Gender differences in altruism," Working papers 10, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  6. Anand Swamy & Stephen Knack & Young Lee & Omar Azfar, 2000. "Gender and Corruption," Center for Development Economics 158, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  7. repec:att:wimass:9610 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Geeroms, Hans J A & Wilmots, Hendrik, 1985. "An Empirical Model of Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 40(2), pages 190-209.
  9. Knack, Stephen & Keefer, Philip, 1997. "Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(4), pages 1251-88, November.
  10. Spicer, Michael W. & Hero, Rodney E., 1985. "Tax evasion and heuristics : A research note," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 263-267, March.
  11. James Andreoni & Brian Erard & Jonathan Feinstein, 1998. "Tax Compliance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 818-860, June.
  12. Treisman, Daniel, 2000. "The causes of corruption: a cross-national study," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 399-457, June.
  13. Nowell, Clifford & Tinkler, Sarah, 1994. "The influence of gender on the provision of a public good," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 25-36, September.
  14. Benno Torgler, 2003. "Tax Morale and Tax Evasion. Evidence from the United States," Working papers 2003/02, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
  15. Benno Torgler, 2002. "Does Culture Matter? Tax Morale in East-West-German Comparison," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 59(4), pages 504-, December.
  16. Laís ABRAMO & Maria Elena VALENZUELA, 2005. "Women's labour force participation rates in Latin America," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 144(4), pages 369-400, December.
  17. Brown-Kruse, Jamie & Hummels, David, 1993. "Gender effects in laboratory public goods contribution : Do individuals put their money where their mouth is?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 255-267, December.
  18. Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 2001. "Chivalry and Solidarity in Ultimatum Games," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 171-88, April.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Benno Torgler & Bin Dong, 2008. "Corruption and Political Interest: Empirical Evidence at the Micro Level," Working Papers 2008.39, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  2. Nordblom, Katarina & Zamac, Jovan, 2011. "Endogenous Norm Formation over the Life Cycle. The case of tax evasion," Working Papers in Economics 511, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  3. Bruno S. Frey & Benno Torgler, 2009. "Politicians: Be Killed or Survive," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series 242, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
  4. García-Valiñas, María A. & Macintyre, Alison & Torgler, Benno, 2012. "Volunteering, pro-environmental attitudes and norms," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 455-467.
  5. Benno Torgler & Friedrich Schneider & Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2008. "Local Autonomy, Tax Morale and the Shadow Economy," CREMA Working Paper Series 2008-24, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  6. Bin Dong & Uwe Dulleck & Benno Torgler, 2008. "Conditional Corruption," CREMA Working Paper Series 2008-29, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).

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