Credit Risk Drivers: Evaluating the Contribution of Firm Level Information and of Macroeconomic Dynamics
AbstractUnderstanding why some firms default, while others do not, is an important issue for the assessment of financial stability. In this domain, it may be interesting to understand if credit risk is driven mostly by idiosyncratic firm characteristics or by systematic factors, which simultaneously affect all firms. In order to empirically examine the determinants of loan default, we begin by exploring the links between credit risk and macroeconomic developments at an aggregate level. The results obtained seem to confirm the hypothesis that in periods of economic growth, which are sometimes accompanied by strong credit growth, there may be some tendency towards excessive risk-taking, even though the imbalances created in such periods only become apparent when economic growth slows down. After examining the determinants of credit risk at an aggregate level, we focus our attention on an extensive dataset with detailed financial information for more than 30.000 firms. The results obtained suggest that default probabilities are influenced by several firm-specific characteristics, such as their financial structure, profitability and liquidity, as well as by their recent sales performance or their investment policy. When time-effect controls or macroeconomic variables are taken into account together with the firms’ characteristics, the results seem to improve substantially. Hence, though the firms’ financial and operational situation has a central role in explaining default probabilities at the micro level, overall macroeconomic conditions are also very important when assessing default probabilities over time.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department in its series Working Papers with number w200707.
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Bonfim, Diana, 2009. "Credit risk drivers: Evaluating the contribution of firm level information and of macroeconomic dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 281-299, February.
- Diana Bonfim, 2006. "Credit Risk Drivers: Evaluating the Contribution of Firm Level Information and of Macroeconomic Dynamics," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
- C41 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
- E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- G33 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Bankruptcy; Liquidation
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gabriel Jiménez & Jesús Saurina, 2006. "Credit Cycles, Credit Risk, and Prudential Regulation," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 2(2), May.
- Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2004.
"The institutional memory hypothesis and the procyclicality of bank lending behavior,"
Journal of Financial Intermediation,
Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 458-495, October.
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2003. "The institutional memory hypothesis and the procyclicality of bank lending behavior," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-02, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2003. "The institutional memory hypothesis and the procyclicality of bank lending behaviour," BIS Working Papers 125, Bank for International Settlements.
- Claudio Borio & Craig Furfine & Philip Lowe, 2001. "Procyclicality of the financial system and financial stability: issues and policy options," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Marrying the macro- and micro-prudential dimensions of financial stability, volume 1, pages 1-57 Bank for International Settlements.
- A. Bhattacharjee & Higson, C. & Holly, S. & Kattuman, P., 2002.
"Macro Economic Instability and Business Exit: Determinants of Failures and Acquisitions of Large UK Firms,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0206, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Bhattacharje,e A. & C.Higson & S.Holly & P.Kattuman, 2002. "Macro Economic Instability and Business Exit: Determinants of Failures and Acquisitions of Large UK Firms," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 27, Royal Economic Society.
- Siem Jan Koopman & Andr� Lucas, 2003.
"Business and Default Cycles for Credit Risk,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
03-062/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 09 Jan 2003.
- Shumway, Tyler, 2001. "Forecasting Bankruptcy More Accurately: A Simple Hazard Model," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(1), pages 101-24, January.
- Anil Bangia & Francis X. Diebold & Til Schuermann, 2000.
"Ratings Migration and the Business Cycle, With Application to Credit Portfolio Stress Testing,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
00-26, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Bangia, Anil & Diebold, Francis X. & Kronimus, Andre & Schagen, Christian & Schuermann, Til, 2002. "Ratings migration and the business cycle, with application to credit portfolio stress testing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 445-474, March.
- Gabriel Jiménez & Jesús Saurina, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Banco de Espaï¿½a Working Papers 0414, Banco de Espa�a.
- Hans Gersbach & Alexander Lipponer, 2003. "Firm Defaults and the Correlation Effect," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 9(3), pages 361-378.
- Philip Lowe, 2002. "Credit risk measurement and procyclicality," BIS Working Papers 116, Bank for International Settlements.
- Crouhy, Michel & Galai, Dan & Mark, Robert, 2000. "A comparative analysis of current credit risk models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 59-117, January.
- Carling, Kenneth & Jacobson, Tor & Lindé, Jesper & Roszbach, Kasper, 2002. "Capital Charges under Basel II: Corporate Credit Risk Modelling and the Macro Economy," Working Paper Series 142, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
- Pederzoli, Chiara & Torricelli, Costanza, 2005. "Capital requirements and business cycle regimes: Forward-looking modelling of default probabilities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 3121-3140, December.
- Nickell, Pamela & Perraudin, William & Varotto, Simone, 2000.
"Stability of rating transitions,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 203-227, January.
- Roszbach, Kasper, 1998.
"Bank Lending Policy, Credit Scoring and the Survival of Loans,"
Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
261, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Kasper Roszbach, 2004. "Bank Lending Policy, Credit Scoring, and the Survival of Loans," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 946-958, November.
- Roszbach, Kasper, 2003. "Bank Lending Policy, Credit Scoring and the Survival of Loans," Working Paper Series 154, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
- Philip Bunn & Victoria Redwood, 2003. "Company accounts based modelling of business failures and the implications for financial stability," Bank of England working papers 210, Bank of England.
- Gordy, Michael B., 2000.
"A comparative anatomy of credit risk models,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 119-149, January.
- Hamerle, Alfred & Liebig, Thilo & Scheule, Harald, 2004. "Forecasting Credit Portfolio Risk," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2004,01, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Rösch, Daniel, 2003. "Correlations and Business Cycles of Credit Risk: Evidence from Bankruptcies in Germany," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 380, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
- Thomas C. Wilson, 1998. "Portfolio credit risk," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 71-82.
- António R. Antunes, 2005. "Analysis of delinquent firms using multi-state transitions," Working Papers w200505, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, 09.
- Jarrow, Robert A & Turnbull, Stuart M, 1995. " Pricing Derivatives on Financial Securities Subject to Credit Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 53-85, March.
- Merton, Robert C, 1974.
"On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-70, May.
- Merton, Robert C., 1973. "On the pricing of corporate debt: the risk structure of interest rates," Working papers 684-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Jimenez, Gabriel & Saurina, Jesus, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2191-2212, September.
- Andrew Benito & Francisco Javier Delgado & Jorge Martínez Pagés, 2004. "A synthetic indicator of financial pressure for spanish firms," Banco de Espaï¿½a Working Papers 0411, Banco de Espa�a.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEE-NTDD).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.