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Holding Company Discounts and Business Groups Optimal Bailout of Subsidiaries

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  • Fernando Lefort

    ()
    (Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad Diego Portales)

  • Rodrigo Gonzalez

    ()
    (Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad Diego Portales)

Abstract

In this paper, we develop a simple two period model of the holding company-subsidiary relationship that analyzes the option faced by controlling shareholders to optimally bailout subsidiary companies using the holding company’s financial resources. This behavior is rational under several incentive structures originated in the presence of group externalities, synergies and private benefits of control. The results of our model are consistent with recent empirical evidence of holding company discounts, and with the existence of diffuse limits among the affiliated firms of a group. Our results allow us to interpret the presence of holding company discounts as evidence that bailing-out may arise for reasons other, and less conflictive, than the perpetuation of tunneling benefits by the controlling shareholder, such as the perpetuation of benefits of reputation and group synergies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad Diego Portales in its series Working Papers with number 34.

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Date of creation: Nov 2011
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Handle: RePEc:ptl:wpaper:34

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  1. Kee-Hong Bae & Jun-Koo Kang & Jin-Mo Kim, 2002. "Tunneling or Value Added? Evidence from Mergers by Korean Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2695-2740, December.
  2. Heitor V. Almeida & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2006. "A Theory of Pyramidal Ownership and Family Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2637-2680, December.
  3. Isabella Massa & Andreas Billmeier, 2007. "Go Long or Short in Pyramids? News From the Egyptian Stock Market," IMF Working Papers 07/179, International Monetary Fund.
  4. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-83, June.
  5. Gonenc, Halit & Hermes, Niels, 2008. "Propping: Evidence from new share issues of Turkish business group firms," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 261-275, July.
  6. Atanasov, Vladimir, 2005. "How much value can blockholders tunnel? Evidence from the Bulgarian mass privatization auctions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 191-234, April.
  7. Yohanes E. Riyanto & Linda A. Toolsema, 2004. "Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership," Departmental Working Papers wp0409, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
  8. Jae-Seung Baek & Jun-Koo Kang & Inmoo Lee, 2006. "Business Groups and Tunneling: Evidencefrom Private Securities Offeringsby Korean Chaebols," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2415-2449, October.
  9. Stein, Jeremy C, 1997. " Internal Capital Markets and the Competition for Corporate Resources," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 111-33, March.
  10. Eric Friedman & Simon Johnson & Todd Mitton, 2003. "Propping and Tunneling," NBER Working Papers 9949, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," NBER Working Papers 6625, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Marc Lévy, 2009. "Control in pyramidal structures," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14291, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  13. Hellwig, Martin F, 1981. "Bankruptcy, Limited Liability, and the Modigliani-Miller Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(1), pages 155-70, March.
  14. Fernando Lefort & Eduardo Walker, 2000. "Ownership And Capital Structure Of Chilean Conglomerates:Facts And Hypotheses For Governance," Abante, Escuela de Administracion. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 3(1), pages 3-27.
  15. Atanasov, Vladimir & Black, Bernard & Ciccotello, Conrad & Gyoshev, Stanley, 2010. "How does law affect finance? An examination of equity tunneling in Bulgaria," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 155-173, April.
  16. Fernando LEFORT & Eduardo WALKER, 2007. "Do Markets Penalize Agency Conflicts Between Controlling And Minority Shareholders? Evidence From Chile," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 45(3), pages 283-314.
  17. Bianco, Magda & Nicodano, Giovanna, 2006. "Pyramidal groups and debt," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 937-961, May.
  18. Gopalan, Radhakrishnan & Nanda, Vikram & Seru, Amit, 2007. "Affiliated firms and financial support: Evidence from Indian business groups," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 759-795, December.
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