Poverty In Britain In 1904: An Early Social Survey Rediscovered
AbstractUntil now there have been no national estimates of the extent of poverty in Britain at the turn of the 20th century. This paper introduces a newly-discovered household budget data set for the early 1900s that is more representative of urban working households in Britain in the period than any other existing record, although not without deficiencies. We use these data to estimate urban poverty among working families in the British Isles in 1904. Applying Bowley’s poverty line we find that about fifteen percent of people in urban working class households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is close to Rowntree’s estimate of primary poverty for York 1899 and in the range that Bowley found in Northern towns in 1912-3. This average masks a heavy concentration of poverty among the unskilled and those with large families.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex in its series PRUS Working Papers with number 38.
Date of creation: Jul 2007
Date of revision:
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Postal: School of Social Sciences and Cultural Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9SN
Phone: (01273) 678739
Web page: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/
More information through EDIRC
Inequality; Poverty; Household Data; Great Britain;
Other versions of this item:
- Gazeley, Ian & Newell, Andrew T., 2007. "Poverty in Britain in 1904: An Early Social Survey Rediscovered," IZA Discussion Papers 3046, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- N33 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Europe: Pre-1913
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lancaster, G. & Ray, R., 2000.
"International Poverty Comparisons on Unit Record Data of Developing and Developed Countries,"
2000-1, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
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- Ian Gazeley, 1989. "The cost of living for urban workers in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 42(2), pages 207-221, 05.
- Bailey, Roy E & Hatton, Timothy J., 1999.
"Seebohm Rowntree and the Post-War Poverty Puzzle,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2147, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hatton, Timothy J. & Martin, Richard M., 2010.
"Fertility decline and the heights of children in Britain, 1886-1938,"
Explorations in Economic History,
Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 505-519, October.
- Hatton, Timothy J. & Martin, Richard M., 2009. "Fertility Decline and the Heights of Children in Britain, 1886-1938," IZA Discussion Papers 4306, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Timothy J. Hatton & Richard M. Martin, 2009. "Fertility Decline and the Heights of Children in Britain, 1886-1938," CEPR Discussion Papers 613, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Gazeley, Ian & Newell, Andrew T., 2009. "No Room to Live: Urban Overcrowding in Edwardian Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 4209, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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