Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Military Expenditure, Economic Growth and Structural Instability: A Case Study of South Africa

Contents:

Author Info

  • Goodness C. Aye

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Mehmet Balcilar

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus,via Mersin 10, Turkey)

  • John P. Dunne

    ()
    (School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa)

  • Rangan Gupta

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Renee van Eyden

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

Abstract

This paper makes two contributions to the growing literature on the military expenditureeconomic growth nexus. It provides a case study of a developing country, South Africa, and considers the possibilities of structural breaks in the relationship, applying newly developed econometric methods. Taking annual data from 1951 to 2010 and using full sample bootstrap Granger non-causality tests, no Granger causal link is found between military expenditure and GDP. Then, using parameter instability tests, the estimated VARs are found to be unstable and when a bootstrap rolling window estimation procedure is used to deal with time variation in the parameters, bidirectional Granger causality between the two series becomes evident in various subsamples. While military expenditure has positive predictive power for GDP at certain initial periods, it has negative predictive power at some later periods in the sample. Similar results were obtained for the causality running from GDP to military expenditure. These findings illustrate that conclusions based on the standard Granger non-causality tests, which neither account for structural breaks nor time variation in the relationship may be invalid.

Download Info

To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Pretoria, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 201344.

as in new window
Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201344

Contact details of provider:
Postal: PRETORIA, 0002
Phone: (+2712) 420 2413
Fax: (+2712) 362-5207
Web page: http://web.up.ac.za/default.asp?ipkCategoryID=677
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Military spending; Economic growth; Bootstrap; Time varying causality;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Biswas, Basudeb & Ram, Rati, 1986. "Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries: An Augmented Model and Further Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(2), pages 361-72, January.
  2. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Afza, Talat & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad, 2011. "Does defence spending impede economic growth? cointegration and causality analysis for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 30887, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Mar 2011.
  3. Mantalos, Panagiotis & Shukur, Ghazi, 1998. "Size and Power of the Error Correction Model Cointegration Test. A Bootstrap Approach," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(2), pages 249-55, May.
  4. Giorgio d’Agostino & John Paul Dunne & Luca Pieroni, 2012. "Corruption, Military Spending And Growth," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 591-604, December.
  5. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1985. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 740R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Feb 1986.
  6. Aizenman, Joshua & Glick, Reuven, 2003. "Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt41r4105h, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  7. Smith, Ronald P., 1980. "Military expenditure and investment in OECD countries, 1954-1973," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 19-32, March.
  8. Alptekin, Aynur & Levine, Paul, 2012. "Military expenditure and economic growth: A meta-analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 636-650.
  9. J. Paul Dunne & Ron Smith & Dirk Willenbockel, 2005. "Models Of Military Expenditure And Growth: A Critical Review," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(6), pages 449-461.
  10. Mehmet Balcilar & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller, 2012. "Housing and the Great Depression," Working papers 2012-47, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  11. R. Scott Hacker & Abdulnasser Hatemi-J, 2006. "Tests for causality between integrated variables using asymptotic and bootstrap distributions: theory and application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(13), pages 1489-1500.
  12. Hansen, Bruce E, 1992. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 321-35, July.
  13. Hiro Y. Toda & Peter C.B. Phillips, 1991. "Vector Autoregression and Causality," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 977, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  14. Ram, Rati, 1986. "Government Size and Economic Growth: A New Framework and Some Evidencefrom Cross-Section and Time-Series Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 191-203, March.
  15. Gurgul, Henryk & Lach, Lukasz & Mestel, Roland, 2011. "The relationship between budgetary expenditure and economic growth in Poland," MPRA Paper 35784, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Jes�s Crespo Cuaresma & Gerhard Reitschuler, 2006. "'Guns Or Butter?' Revisited: Robustness And Nonlinearity Issues In The Defense-Growth Nexus," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 53(4), pages 523-541, 09.
  17. James Murdoch & Todd Sandler, 2002. "Civil wars and economic growth: A regional comparison," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(6), pages 451-464.
  18. Mantalos Panagiotis, 2000. "A Graphical Investigation of the Size and Power of the Granger-Causality Tests in Integrated-Cointegrated VAR Systems," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-18, April.
  19. JP Dunne & E Nikolaidou & R Smith, 2002. "Military Spending, Investment And Economic Growth In Small Industrialising Economies," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 70(5), pages 789-790, 06.
  20. Horowitz, Joel L., 1994. "Bootstrap-based critical values for the information matrix test," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 395-411, April.
  21. Andrews, Donald W K & Ploberger, Werner, 1994. "Optimal Tests When a Nuisance Parameter Is Present Only under the Alternative," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1383-1414, November.
  22. J Paul Dunne, Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2005. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in Greece, Portugal and Spain," Frontiers in Finance and Economics, SKEMA Business School, vol. 2(1), pages 1-17, June.
  23. J Paul Dunne, 2006. "The Making of Arms in South Africa," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, Economists for Peace and Security (UK), vol. 1(1), pages 40-48, January.
  24. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 943, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  25. Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
  26. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  27. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
  28. Pantelis Kalaitzidakis & Vangelis Tzouvelekas, 2011. "Military Spending And The Growth‐Maximizing Allocation Of Public Capital: A Cross‐Country Empirical Analysis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(4), pages 1029-1041, October.
  29. MacKinnon, James G, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-18, Nov.-Dec..
  30. Granger, Clive W J, 1996. "Can We Improve the Perceived Quality of Economic Forecasts?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 455-73, Sept.-Oct.
  31. Habibullah, M.S. & Law, Siong-Hook & Dayang-Afizzah, A.M., 2008. "Defense spending and economic growth in Asian economies: A panel error-correction approach," MPRA Paper 12105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  32. Luca Pieroni, 2009. "Military Expenditure And Economic Growth," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 327-339.
  33. Christos Kollias & Nikolaos Mylonidis & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2007. "A Panel Data Analysis Of The Nexus Between Defence Spending And Growth In The European Union," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 75-85.
  34. d'Agostino, Giorgio & Dunne, John Paul & Pieroni, Luca, 2013. "Military Expenditure, Endogeneity and Economic Growth," MPRA Paper 45640, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  35. Ghazi Shukur & Panagiotis Mantalos, 2000. "A simple investigation of the Granger-causality test in integrated-cointegrated VAR systems," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(8), pages 1021-1031.
  36. Selami Sezgin, 2001. "An empirical analysis of turkey's defence-growth relationships with a multi-equation model (1956-1994)," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 69-86.
  37. Mehmet Balcilar & Zeynel Ozdemir, 2013. "The export-output growth nexus in Japan: a bootstrap rolling window approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 639-660, April.
  38. Pavel Yakovlev, 2007. "Arms Trade, Military Spending, And Economic Growth," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 317-338.
  39. Balcilar, Mehmet & Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin & Arslanturk, Yalcin, 2010. "Economic growth and energy consumption causal nexus viewed through a bootstrap rolling window," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1398-1410, November.
  40. Selami Sezgin, 1997. "Country survey X: Defence spending in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 381-409.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201344. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rangan Gupta).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.