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Unit Roots Tests with Smooth Breaks: An Application to the Nelson-Plosser Data Set

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  • Pascalau, Razvan

Abstract

This paper reconsiders the nature of the trends (i.e. deterministic or stochastic) in macroeconomic time series. For this purpose, the paper employs two new tests that display robustness to structural breaks of unknown forms, irrespective of the date and/or location of the breaks. These tests approximate structural changes as smooth processes via Flexible Fourier transforms. The tests deliver strong evidence in favor of a nonlinear deterministic trend for real GNP, real per capita GNP, employment, the unemployment rate, and stock prices. Further, the two tests confirm the existence of stochastic trends in nominal GNP, consumer prices, real wages, monetary aggregates, velocity, and bond yields. In general, it appears that real variables are stationary while nominal ones have a unit root.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 7220.

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Date of creation: 14 Feb 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:7220

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Keywords: Unit Roots; Stationarity Tests; Structural Change;

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Cited by:
  1. Lee, Chia-Hao & Chou, Pei-I, 2013. "The behavior of real exchange rate: Nonlinearity and breaks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 125-133.
  2. Tsangyao Chang & Chia-Hao Lee & Pei-I Chou, 2012. "Is per capita real GDP stationary in five southeastern European countries? Fourier unit root test," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1073-1082, December.
  3. Lee, Kuei-Chiu, 2014. "Is per capita real GDP stationary in China? Sequential panel selection method," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 507-517.
  4. Pei-Long Shen & Chih-Wei Su & Hsu-Ling Chang, 2013. "Are real GDP levels nonstationary across Central and Eastern European countries?," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 13(1), pages 99-108, July.
  5. Pan, Guochen & Chang, Hsu-Ling & Su, Chi-Wei, 2012. "Regional differences in development of life insurance markets in China," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 548-558.
  6. He, Huizhen & Chou, Ming Che & Chang, Tsangyao, 2014. "Purchasing power parity for 15 Latin American countries: Panel SURKSS test with a Fourier function," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 37-43.
  7. Chang, Tsangyao & Chu, Hsiao-Ping & Ranjbar, Omid, 2014. "Are GDP fluctuations transitory or permanent in African countries? Sequential Panel Selection Method," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 380-399.
  8. Hao Fang & Yen-Hsien Lee, 2013. "Are the Global REIT Markets Efficient by a New Approach?," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(6), pages 743-757, December.
  9. Liu, Tie-Ying & Su, Chi-Wei & Jiang, Xu-Zhao, 2014. "Is fiscal policy stationary in China? A regional study by local government," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 492-499.
  10. Liu, Wen-Chi, 2013. "Reexamining the income inequality in China: Evidence from sequential panel selection method," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 37-42.
  11. Chang, Chih Kai, 2012. "Mean Reversion of Real Interest Rates in G-20: Panel Kss Test by Spsm with a Fourier Function," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 58-68, September.
  12. Su, Chi-Wei & Chang, Hsu-Ling & Liu, Lin, 2012. "Real interest rate parity with Flexible Fourier stationary test for Central and Eastern European countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2719-2723.
  13. Jorge Andrés Tamayo Castaño, 2012. "Asimetrías en la demanda por trabajo en Colombia: el papel del ciclo económico," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009286, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  14. Cheng, Shu-Ching & Wu, Tsung-pao & Lee, Kuei-Chiu & Chang, Tsangyao, 2014. "Flexible Fourier unit root test of unemployment for PIIGS countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 142-148.
  15. Liu, Yan & Chang, Hsu-Ling & Su, Chi-Wei, 2013. "Do real interest rates converge across East Asian countries based on China?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 467-473.
  16. Chang, Tsangyao, 2011. "Hysteresis in unemployment for 17 OECD countries: Stationary test with a Fourier function," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2208-2214, September.
  17. Tsangyao Chang & Tsung-pao Wu & Rangan Gupta, 2013. "Are House Prices in South Africa Really Non-Stationary? Evidence from SPSM-Based Panel KSS Test with a Fourier Function," Working Papers 201324, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  18. He, Huizhen & Ranjbar, Omid & Chang, Tsangyao, 2013. "Purchasing power parity in transition countries: Old wine with new bottle," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 24-32.
  19. Liu, Lin & Chang, Hsu-Ling & Su, Chi-Wei & Jiang, Chun, 2013. "Real interest rate parity in East Asian countries based on China with flexible Fourier stationary test," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 52-58.
  20. Chih-kai Chang & Tsangyao Chang, 2012. "Revisiting the sustainability of current account deficit: SPSM using the panel KSS Test with a Fourier Function," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(1), pages 538-550.

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