TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis
AbstractThis paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of change in various variables as a result of tariff reduction. The main conclusions are as follows. The results show the impact on income of households through change in factor prices. It shows that real income of households’ has increased due to decline in prices. The percentage share of labour in GDP has increased while of capital has declined. The study by Siddiqui and Iqbal (1999) shows that higher percentage of income from capital goes to rich and higher percentage of wages and salaries goes to poor segment of population). This implies that the gap between the rich and poor has reduced. The study shows that consumption of all goods but education has increased and consumption of non-food items increases more as compared to food items. This implies that tariff reduction has welfare enhancing impact on households.Indeed the analysis with disaggregated households sector will give the relatively better picture. Due to decline in import prices, industrial imports have increased by 10% while all other imports have declined. All exports increase. But industrial exports increases more as compare to exports from all other sectors.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 6141.
Date of creation: 1999
Date of revision:
CGE; Trade; Income Distribution;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
- D33 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Factor Income Distribution
- F1 - International Economics - - Trade
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zafar Iqbal & Rizwana Siddiqui, 1998. "The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Distribution in Pakistan A SAM-based Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 377-397.
- Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
- Tilat Anwar, 1996. "Structural Adjustment and Poverty: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 911-926.
- Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 2001. "Tariff Reduction and Functional Income Distribution in Pakistan: A CGE Model," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:10, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & Fargeix, Andre, 1991. "Politically feasible and equitable adjustment: Some alternatives for ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1577-1594, November.
- A.R. Kemal, 1994. "Structural Adjustment, Employment, Income Distribution and Poverty," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 901-914.
- Morrisson, Christian, 1991. "Adjustment, incomes and poverty in Morocco," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1633-1651, November.
- de Melo, Jaime, 1988. "CGE models for the analysis of trade policy in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3, The World Bank.
- Thorbecke, Erik, 1991. "Adjustment, growth and income distribution in Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(11), pages 1595-1614, November.
- Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007.
"Dynamic Effects of Agriculture Trade in the Context of Domestic and Global Liberalisation : A CGE Analysis for Pakistan,"
Trade Working Papers
22220, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
- Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007. "Dynamic Effects of Agriculture Trade in the Context of Domestic and Global Liberalisation: A CGE Analysis for Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2007:38, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Rizwana Siddiqui, 2007. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms in Pakistan," Working Papers MPIA 2007-13, PEP-MPIA.
- Rizwana Siddiqui & Abdul Razzaq Kemal & Rehana Siddiqui & Ali Kemal, 2008. "Tariff Reduction, Fiscal Adjustment and Poverty in Pakistan: a CGE-Based Analysis," Working Papers MPIA 2008-17, PEP-MPIA.
- Butt, Muhammad Shoaib & Bandara, Jayatilleke S., 2008. "National and Regional Impacts of Increasing Non-Agricultural Market Access by Developing Countries – the Case of Pakistan," Economic Analysis and Policy (EAP), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Economics and Finance, vol. 38(2), pages 277-311, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.