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A Joint Test of Price Discrimination, Menu Cost and Currency Invoicing

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  • Gervais, Jean-Philippe
  • Larue, Bruno

Abstract

This paper investigates price discriminating behaviour and currency invoicing decisions of Canadian pork exporters in the presence of menu costs. It is shown that when export prices are negotiated in the exporter’s currency, menu costs cause threshold effects in the sense that there are bounds within (outside of) which price adjustments are not (are) observed. Conversely, the pass-through is not interrupted by menu costs when export prices are denominated in the importer’s currency. The empirical model focuses on pork meat exports from two Canadian provinces to the U.S. and Japan. Hansen’s (2000) threshold estimation procedure is used to jointly test for currency invoicing and incomplete pass-through in the presence of menu costs. Inference is conducted using the bootstrap with pre-pivoting methods to deal with nuisance parameters. The existence of menu cost is supported by the data in three of the four cases. It also appears that Quebec pork exporters price discriminate and invoice in Japanese yen their exports to Japan. Manitoba exporters also seem to follow the same invoicing strategy, but their ability to increase their profit margin in response to large enough own-currency devaluations is questionable. Our currency invoicing results for sales to the U.S. are consistent with subsets of Canadian firms using either the Canadian or U.S. currency.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 565.

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Date of creation: 02 Jun 2006
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:565

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  1. Bruno Lame & Robert Romain & Jean-Philippe Gervais & Sami Ben Salha, 2000. "The Collusion-deterring Effect of Pre-attributed Supplies and the Hog Auction in Quebec," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 48(4), pages 607-622, December.
  2. Knetter, Michael M, 1989. "Price Discrimination by U.S. and German Exporters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 198-210, March.
  3. Bruce E. Hansen, 2000. "Sample Splitting and Threshold Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(3), pages 575-604, May.
  4. Kiyotaka Sato, 2003. "Currency Invoicing in Japanese Exports to East Asia: Implications for Yen Internationalization," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 129-154, 06.
  5. McCullough, B D & Vinod, H D, 1998. "Implementing the Double Bootstrap," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 12(1), pages 79-95, August.
  6. Robert Feenstra & Paul Bergin, 2003. "Pricing To Market, Staggered Contracts, And Real Exchange Rate Persistence," Working Papers 991, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  7. Gil-Pareja, Salvador, 2002. "Export Price Discrimination in Europe and Exchange Rates," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(2), pages 299-312, May.
  8. Johnson, Martin & Pick, Daniel, 1997. "Currency Quandary: The Choice of Invoicing Currency under Exchange-Rate Uncertainty," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 118-28, February.
  9. Griffith, Garry R. & Mullen, John D., 2001. "Pricing-to-market in NSW rice export markets," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 45(3), September.
  10. Sasaki, Yuri Nagataki, 2002. "Pricing-to-Market Behavior: Japanese Exports to the US, Asia, and the EU," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 140-50, February.
  11. Shabtai Donnenfeld & Alfred Haug, 2003. "Currency Invoicing in International Trade: an Empirical Investigation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 332-345, 05.
  12. Knetter, Michael M., 1994. "Is export price adjustment asymmetric?: evaluating the market share and marketing bottlenecks hypotheses," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 55-70, February.
  13. Merih Uctum, 2003. "Pricing-to-Market: the Japanese Experience with a Falling Yen and the Asian Crisis," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(2), pages 360-378, 05.
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