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Entrepreneurship and Independent Professionals: Why do Professionals not meet with Stereotypes of Entrepreneurship?

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  • Bögenhold, Dieter
  • Heinonen, Jarna
  • Akola, Elisa
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    Abstract

    The study discusses myths of entrepreneurship by looking at the overlapping areas of entrepreneurship, self-employment and professions. The study argues that professions are part of the category of self-employment. Additionally, the study presents empirical findings drawn from a unique empirical data set from Finland: a survey (N=733) including freelance journalists, translators, interpreters and artists at the blurred boundaries between waged work and entrepreneurship. Findings reveal that the professions are clearly different and the manifestations of entrepreneurship vary, reflecting the work and the labour market situation within the profession. The life and work situations of those in the liberal professions cannot be interpreted in simple black and white schemes or as winners and looser. Instead, many different socio-economic situations can be found ‘in between’, which are driven by different social logics. For entrepreneurship researchers the study opens up new avenues by taking us beyond the push-pull-dichotomy, which over-simplifies the decision to enter self-employment. The term entrepreneurship is often used in an undifferentiated way, and it therefore easily generates myths and stereotypes, which are challenged by the study. A narrower and more realistic view shows that there are diverse agents under the flag of entrepreneurship, who are usually not regarded as core entrepreneurs although they exist in everyday life.

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    File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/51529/
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 51529.

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    Date of creation: 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:51529

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    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Professions; Self-employment; Occupational Careers; Waged Work; Transitions; Labour Market;

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    References

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    1. Erik Stam, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy," Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-006, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
    2. Marco Cagetti & Mariacristina De Nardi, 2003. "Entrepreneurship, frictions, and wealth," Staff Report 322, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    3. C. Mirjam van Praag & Peter H. Versloot, 2007. "What is the Value of Entrepreneurship? A Review of Recent Research," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-061, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
    4. David Audretsch, 2009. "The entrepreneurial society," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
    5. John O. Ogbor, 2000. "Mythicizing and Reification in Entrepreneurial Discourse: Ideology-Critique of Entrepreneurial Studies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(5), pages 605-635, 07.
    6. repec:dgr:uvatin:2007066 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Mark Sanders, 2007. "Scientific Paradigms, Entrepreneurial Opportunities and Cycles in Economic Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 339-354, April.
    8. Verheul, I. & van Stel, A.J., 2007. "Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2007-070-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
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