Quasi-Experimental Estimates of Class Size Effect in Primary Schools in Poland
AbstractIn this paper we analyze class size effects in the case of primary schools in Poland. We use two empirical strategies to avoid endogeneity bias. First, we use average class size in a grade as an instrumental variable for actual class size. This allows us to control for within school selection of pupils with different abilities to classes of different sizes. Additionally, we estimate fixed effects for schools to control for differences between them. Second, we exploit the fact that there is an informal maximum class size rule. We estimate class size effect only for those enrollment levels where some schools decide to add a new class and thus dramatically lower class sizes. For such enrollment levels variance of class size is mainly exogenous and we argue that this allows to estimate quasi-experimental class size effects. In this case we again use average class size as an instrument with enrollment as a key control variable. Using both strategies we obtain similar findings. We found that the positive effects observed with OLS regression disappear when we use instrumental variables. If we avoid endogeneity bias, then class size negatively affects student achievement. However, this effect is rather small. We discuss methodology, possible bias of results and the importance of our findings to current policy issues in Poland.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 4958.
Date of creation: 15 Mar 2006
Date of revision:
class size; educational achievement; student sorting; school fixed effects; instrumental variables; regression discontinuity design;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
- C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
- H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eric A. Hanushek, 2002.
"The Failure of Input-based Schooling Policies,"
NBER Working Papers
9040, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
- Wößmann, Ludger & West, Martin R., 2006.
"Class-size effects in school systems around the world: Evidence from between-grade variation in TIMSS,"
Munich Reprints in Economics
19673, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Wo[ss]mann, Ludger & West, Martin, 2006. "Class-size effects in school systems around the world: Evidence from between-grade variation in TIMSS," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 695-736, April.
- Woessmann, Ludger & West, Martin R., 2002. "Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS," IZA Discussion Papers 485, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ludger Wößmann & Martin R. West, 2002. "Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS," Kiel Working Papers 1099, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Alan B. Krueger, 2000.
"Economic Considerations and class size,"
975, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
- Ludger W��mann, 2003.
"European education production functions: what makes a difference for student achievement in Europe?,"
European Economy - Economic Papers
190, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Ludger Woessmann, 2004. "European "Education Production Functions": What Makes A Difference For Student Achievement In Europe?," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2004 93, Royal Economic Society.
- Urquiola, Miguel, 2001. "Identifying class size effects in developing countries : evidence from rural schools in Bolivia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2711, The World Bank.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001.
"Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments,"
NBER Working Papers
8456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 69-85, Fall.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Working Papers 834, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Akerhielm, Karen, 1995. "Does class size matter?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 229-241, September.
- repec:fth:prinin:455 is not listed on IDEAS
- Caroline M. Hoxby, 1998. "The Effects of Class Size and Composition on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Natural Population Variation," NBER Working Papers 6869, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Coupe, Tom & Olefir, Anna & Alonso, Juan Diego, 2011.
"Is optimization an opportunity ? an assessment of the impact of class size and school size on the performance of Ukrainian secondary schools,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
5879, The World Bank.
- Tom Coupe & Anna Olefir & Juan Diego Alonso, 2011. "Is Optimization an Opportunity? An Assessment of the Impact of Class Size and School Size on the Performance of Ukrainian Secondary Schools," Discussion Papers 44, Kyiv School of Economics.
- Urquiola, Miguel & Verhoogen, Eric, 2007.
"Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2963, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Miguel Urquiola & Eric Verhoogen, 2009. "Class-Size Caps, Sorting, and the Regression-Discontinuity Design," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(1), pages 179-215, March.
- Urquiola, Miguel & Verhoogen, Eric A., 2007. "Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 6425, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Miguel Urquiola & Eric Verhoogen, 2007. "Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 13303, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Miguel Urquiola & Eric A. Verhoogen, 2007. "Class size and sorting in market equilibrium: Theory and evidence," Discussion Papers 0607-14, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.