What do we know about clusters? In search of effective cluster policies
AbstractGeographical clusters are in the focus of a large breadth of literature and have been discovered as a preferred policy tool by policymakers around the world. The vast literature suggests differing explanations for the advantages clusters offer to constituent firms. Yet not all of these explanations have been empirically confirmed. Before cluster policy can act as a reliable tool for economic policy, there must be a certain degree of clarity about what kind of advantages a cluster can bring to constituent firms. Therefore, the following article reviews different explanations of cluster advantages from the literature. Its aim is to identify concrete mechanisms through which these advantages materialize. On the basis of these mechanisms the article identifies questions in cluster theory that are still open and defines steps for further research to develop a comprehensive theory of cluster policy.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 43848.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision: 2009
clusters; cluster theory; cluster policy; agglomeration; increasing returns to scale;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
- O3 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights
- R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
- O4 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
- R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1998.
"Innovation in Cities: Science-Based Diversity, Specialization and Localized Competition,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1980, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Feldman, Maryann P. & Audretsch, David B., 1999. "Innovation in cities:: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 409-429, February.
- D P Angel, 1991. "High-technology agglomeration and the labor market: the case of Silicon Valley," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 23(10), pages 1501-1516, October.
- Ron Boschma, 2005. "Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 61-74.
- Saxenian, AnnaLee, 1991. "The origins and dynamics of production networks in Silicon Valley," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 423-437, October.
- Ron Martin & Peter Sunley, 2003.
"Deconstructing clusters: chaotic concept or policy panacea?,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 3(1), pages 5-35, January.
- Ron Martin & Peter Sunley, 2002. "Deconstructing Clusters: Chaotic Concept or Policy Panacea," ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers wp244, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
- Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992.
"Growth in Cities,"
3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Koen Frenken & Ron A. Boschma, 2007.
"A theoretical framework for Evolutionary Economic Geography: Industrial dynamics and urban growth as a branching process,"
Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG)
0701, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Mar 2007.
- Koen Frenken & Ron A. Boschma, 2007. "A theoretical framework for evolutionary economic geography: industrial dynamics and urban growth as a branching process," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(5), pages 635-649, September.
- Bengt-ake Lundvall & Bjorn Johnson, 1994. "The Learning Economy," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 23-42.
- Paul Romer, 1989.
"Endogenous Technological Change,"
NBER Working Papers
3210, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dorfman, Nancy S., 1983. "Route 128: The development of a regional high technology economy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 299-316, December.
- Weterings, Anet & Boschma, Ron, 2009. "Does spatial proximity to customers matter for innovative performance?: Evidence from the Dutch software sector," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 746-755, June.
- Romer, Paul M, 1986.
"Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
- Anders Malmberg & Peter Maskell, 2002. "The elusive concept of localization economies: towards a knowledge-based theory of spatial clustering," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(3), pages 429-449, March.
- Williamson, Oliver E, 1979. "Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractural Relations," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 233-61, October.
- Østergaard, Christian R., 2009. "Knowledge flows through social networks in a cluster: Comparing university and industry links," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 196-210, September.
- Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2009. "Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 439-468, July.
- Maskell, Peter & Malmberg, Anders, 1999. "Localised Learning and Industrial Competitiveness," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 167-85, March.
- Rolf Sternberg, 1999. "Innovative Linkages and Proximity: Empirical Results from Recent Surveys of Small and Medium Sized Firms in German Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(6), pages 529-540.
- Paul Almeida & Bruce Kogut, 1999. "Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 905-917, July.
- Audretsch, David B, 1998.
"Agglomeration and the Location of Innovative Activity,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1974, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Audretsch, David B, 1998. "Agglomeration and the Location of Innovative Activity," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(2), pages 18-29, Summer.
- Romer, Paul M, 1987. "Growth Based on Increasing Returns Due to Specialization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 56-62, May.
- Michael Porter, 1994. "The Role of Location in Competition," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 35-40.
- Martina Fromhold-Eisebith, 2004. "Innovative milieu and social capital—complementary or redundant concepts of collaboration-based regional development?," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(6), pages 747-765, September.
- Rolf Sternberg & Christine Tamasy, 1999. "Munich as Germany's No. 1 High Technology Region: Empirical Evidence, Theoretical Explanations and the Role of Small Firm/Large Firm Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 367-377.
- Eric von Hippel, 1994. ""Sticky Information" and the Locus of Problem Solving: Implications for Innovation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(4), pages 429-439, April.
- �sa Lindholm Dahlstrand, 1999. "Technology-based SMEs in the Go �teborg Region: Their Origin and Interaction with Universities and Large Firms," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 379-389.
- Feldman, Maryann P, 2001. "The Entrepreneurial Event Revisited: Firm Formation in a Regional Context," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 861-91, December.
- Keith Smith, . "New directions in research and technology policy: Identifying the key issues," STEP Report series 199401, The STEP Group, Studies in technology, innovation and economic policy.
- S O Park & A Markusen, 1995. "Generalizing new industrial districts: a theoretical agenda and an application from a non-Western economy," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 27(1), pages 81-104, January.
- Lissoni, Francesco, 2001. "Knowledge codification and the geography of innovation: the case of Brescia mechanical cluster," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1479-1500, December.
- Harald Bathelt, 2001. "Regional competence and economic recovery: divergent growth paths in Boston's high technology economy," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 287-314, October.
- Bengtsson, Maria & Sölvell, Örjan, 2004. "Climate of competition, clusters and innovative performance," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 225-244, September.
- Meric S. Gertler, 2003. "Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context, or The undefinable tacitness of being (there)," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(1), pages 75-99, January.
- Storper, Michael, 1989. "The Transition to Flexible Specialisation in the U.S. Film Industry: External Economies, the Division of Labour, and the Crossing of Industrial Divides," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 273-305, June.
- Benner, Maximilian, 2013. "Towards a policy to promote tourism clusters," MPRA Paper 43924, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Maximilian Benner, 2012. "Cluster Policy as a Development Strategy. Case Studies from the Middle East and North Africa," Working Paper Series in Economics 255, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
- Benner, Maximilian, 2013. "Designing Comprehensive Cluster Policies in Developing Countries: Perspectives for Morocco," MPRA Paper 49594, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Benner, Maximilian, 2012. "Cluster Policy: Principles and a Toolbox," MPRA Paper 43847, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Benner, Maximilian, 2013. "Cluster policy in developing countries," MPRA Paper 44257, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Benner, Maximilian, 2012.
"Clusterwettbewerbe: Eine Option für Entwicklungsländer?
[Cluster competitions: An option for developing countries?]," MPRA Paper 40743, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.