Linkages between Defence Spending and Income Inequality in Iran
AbstractThis paper contributes in economic literature by investigating the impact of defence spending on income inequality in a case of Iran using time series data over the period of 1969-2011. For this purpose, we have applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration for long run relationship in the presence of structural breaks arising in the series. The stationarity properties of the variables are tested using structural break unit root tests. The causal relationship between defence spending and income inequality is examined by employing the VECM Granger causality approach. Our findings validate the long run relationship between the series. The results indicated that defence spending improves income distribution in Iran. An inverted-U shaped relationship exists between defence spending and income inequality. Economic growth deteriorates income inequality. The causality analysis reveals that defence spending Granger causes income inequality and feedback effect exists between income inequality and economic growth.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 41983.
Date of creation: 06 Oct 2012
Date of revision: 14 Oct 2012
Defense Spending; Income Inequality;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Christos Kollias & Nikolaos Mylonidis & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2007. "A Panel Data Analysis Of The Nexus Between Defence Spending And Growth In The European Union," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 75-85.
- Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992.
"Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Carlos Seiglie, 1997. "Deficits, Defense, and Income Redistribution," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 17(1), pages 11-21, Spring/Su.
- Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 289-301, April.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992.
"Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Clemente, Jesus & Montanes, Antonio & Reyes, Marcelo, 1998. "Testing for a unit root in variables with a double change in the mean," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 175-182, May.
- Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza, 2011.
"Military spending and economic growth: the case of Iran,"
35498, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mohammad Reza Farzanegan, 2012. "Military Spending and Economic Growth: The Case of Iran," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201223, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
- Erdal Karagol & Serap Palaz, 2004. "Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 289-298.
- Dani Rodrik, 1999.
"Democracies Pay Higher Wages,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 707-738, August.
- Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Income inequality-economic growth and non-linearity: a case of Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 613-636, July.
- Peter Batchelor & J. Paul Dunne & David Saal, 2000. "Military spending and economic growth in South Africa," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4), pages 553-571.
- Gradstein, Mark & Milanovic, Branko & Ying, Yvonne, 2001.
"Democracy and income inequality : an empirical analysis,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2561, The World Bank.
- Mark Gradstein & Branko Milanovic & Yvonne Ying, 2001. "Democracy and Income In-Equality: An Empirical Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 411, CESifo Group Munich.
- Ali Hamid E., 2011. "Military Expenditures and Human Development: Guns and Butter Arguments Revisited: A Case Study from Egypt," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-21, September.
- David R. Henderson & Robert M. McNab & Tamas Rozsas, 2008. "Did Inequality Increase in Transition?: An Analysis of the Transition Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Eastern European Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(2), pages 28-49, March.
- Lin, Eric S. & Ali, Hamid E., 2009. "Military Spending and Inequality: Panel Granger Causality Test," MPRA Paper 40159, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
- Perron, Pierre & Vogelsang, Timothy J, 1992. "Testing for a Unit Root in a Time Series with a Changing Mean: Corrections and Extensions," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 467-70, October.
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
- Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 1997.
"Lag Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
369, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2000.
- Serena Ng & Pierre Perron, 2001. "LAG Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Tests with Good Size and Power," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1519-1554, November.
- Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
- Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013.
"Does Defence Spending Impede Economic Growth? Cointegration And Causality Analysis For Pakistan,"
Defence and Peace Economics,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 105-120, April.
- Shahbaz, Muhammad & Afza, Talat & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad, 2011. "Does defence spending impede economic growth? cointegration and causality analysis for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 30887, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Mar 2011.
- Hamid Ali, 2007. "Military Expenditures And Inequality: Empirical Evidence From Global Data," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 519-535.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.