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On the (non-)lattice structure of the equilibrium set in games with strategic substitutes

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  • Roy, Sunanda
  • Sabarwal, Tarun

Abstract

This paper studies models where the optimal response functions under consideration are non-increasing in endogenous variables, and weakly increasing in exogenous parameters. Such models include games with strategic substitutes, and include cases where additionally, some variables may be strategic complements. The main result here is that the equilibrium set in such models is a non-empty, complete lattice, if, and only if, there is a unique equilibrium. Indeed, for a given parameter value, a pair of distinct equilibria are never comparable. Therefore, with multiple equilibria, some of the established techniques for exhibiting increasing equilibria or computing equilibria that use the largest or smallest equilibrium, or that use the lattice structure of the equilibrium set do not apply to such models. Moreover, there are no ranked equilibria in such models. Additionally, the analysis here implies a new proof and a slight generalization of some existing results. It is shown that when a parameter increases, no new equilibrium is smaller than any old equilibrium. (In particular, in n-player games of strategic substitutes with real-valued action spaces, symmetric equilibria increase with the parameter.)

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 4120.

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Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision: 23 May 2007
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4120

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Keywords: Monotone comparative statics; Non-increasing functions; Never increasing correspondences; Strategic substitutes; Equilibrium set;

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  1. Echenique, Federico & Sabarwal, Tarun, 2003. "Strong comparative statics of equilibria," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 307-314, February.
  2. Vives, Xavier, 1990. "Nash equilibrium with strategic complementarities," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 305-321.
  3. Zhou Lin, 1994. "The Set of Nash Equilibria of a Supermodular Game Is a Complete Lattice," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 295-300, September.
  4. Federico Echenique, 2003. "Mixed equilibria in games of strategic complementarities," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 33-44, 08.
  5. Milgrom, P. & Shannon, C., 1991. "Monotone Comparative Statics," Papers 11, Stanford - Institute for Thoretical Economics.
  6. Corchon, Luis C., 1994. "Comparative statics for aggregative games the strong concavity case," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 151-165, December.
  7. Federico Echenique, 2000. "Comparative Statics by Adaptive Dynamics and The Correspondence Principle," GE, Growth, Math methods 9912002, EconWPA.
  8. Lippman, Steven A. & Mamer, John W. & McCardle, Kevin F., 1987. "Comparative statics in non-cooperative games via transfinitely iterated play," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 288-303, April.
  9. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1990. "Rationalizability, Learning, and Equilibrium in Games with Strategic Complementarities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(6), pages 1255-77, November.
  10. Aaron S. Edlin and Chris Shannon., 1995. "Strict Monotonicity in Comparative Statics," Economics Working Papers 95-238, University of California at Berkeley.
  11. Shannon, Chris, 1995. "Weak and Strong Monotone Comparative Statics," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 209-27, March.
  12. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
  13. Federico Echenique, 2003. "The equilibrium set of two-player games with complementarities is a sublattice," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 903-905, November.
  14. Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1994. "Comparing Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 441-59, June.
  15. Villas-Boas, J. Miguel, 1997. "Comparative Statics of Fixed Points," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 183-198, March.
  16. Dubey, Pradeep & Haimanko, Ori & Zapechelnyuk, Andriy, 2006. "Strategic complements and substitutes, and potential games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 77-94, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Roy, Sunanda & Sabarwal, Tarun, 2005. "Monotone Comparative Statics for Games with Strategic Substitutes," MPRA Paper 4709, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Sep 2007.
  2. Roy, Sunanda & Sabarwal, Tarun, 2012. "Characterizing Stability Properties in Games with Strategic Substitutes," Staff General Research Papers 34778, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  3. Andrew Monaco & Tarun Sabarwal, 2012. "Games with Strategic Heterogeneity," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201240, University of Kansas, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2012.

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