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Black and White Fertility, Differential Baby Booms: The Value of Civil Rights

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  • Tamura, Robert
  • Simon, Curtis
  • Murphy, Kevin M.

Abstract

This paper presents new estimates of the benets of equal education opportunity for blacks over the period 1820-2000. For the better part of US history, blacks have enjoyed less access to schooling for their children than whites. This paper attempts to quantify the value of this discrimination. Our estimates of the welfare cost of this form of discrimination prior to the Civil War range between 1.7 and 10 times black wealth, and between 1.6 and 4 times black wealth prior to 1960. Further we find that the Civil Rights era was valued by blacks in the South by between 1 percent to 2 percent of wealth. Outside of the South we find significant costs of discrimination prior to 1960, ranging from 8 percent to 100 percent of black wealth! For these divisions from 1960-2000 blacks have attained rough parity in schooling access. The welfare magnitudes are similar to the hypothetical gains to blacks if they had white mortality rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 40921.

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Date of creation: 27 Aug 2012
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:40921

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Keywords: cost of discrimination; unequal access to education; fertility; schooling;

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  1. Kevin M. Murphy & Robert H. Topel, 2005. "The Value of Health and Longevity," NBER Working Papers 11405, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jonathan Guryan, 2004. "Desegregation and Black Dropout Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 919-943, September.
  3. Alice Schoonbroodt & Larry E. Jones, 2010. "Baby Busts and Baby Booms: The Fertility Response to Shocks in Dynastic Models," 2010 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 144, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  4. Becker, Gary S & Murphy, Kevin M & Tamura, Robert, 1990. "Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S12-37, October.
  5. Simon, Curtis & Tamura, Robert, 2008. "Do higher rents discourage fertility? evidence from U.S. cities, 1940-2000," MPRA Paper 7721, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Murphy, Kevin M & Simon, Curtis & Tamura, Robert, 2008. "Fertility decline, baby boom and economic growth," MPRA Paper 7719, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Todd Schoellman & Sean Mulholland & Robert Tamura & Chad Turner, 2010. "How Important are Human Capital, Physical Capital and Total Factor Productivity for Determining State Economic Growth in the United States, 1840-2000," 2010 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 839, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  8. Matthias Doepke & Moshe Hazan & Yishay D. Maoz, 2008. "The Baby Boom and World War II: A Macroeconomic Analysis," IEW - Working Papers, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich 355, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  9. Haurin, Donald R. & Brasington, David, 1996. "School Quality and Real House Prices: Inter- and Intrametropolitan Effects," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 351-368, December.
  10. William J. Collins & Robert A. Margo, 2000. "Race and the Value of Owner-Occupied Housing, 1940-1990," NBER Working Papers 7749, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, 2002. "Does the Mortality Decline Promote Economic Growth?," Macroeconomics, EconWPA 0212008, EconWPA.
  12. Collins, William J. & Margo, Robert A., 2001. "Race and Home Ownership: A Century-Long View," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 68-92, January.
  13. Albanesi, Stefania & Olivetti, Claudia, 2010. "Maternal Health and the Baby Boom," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 7925, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. David Card & Alan Krueger, 1990. "School Quality and Black/White Relative Earnings: A Direct Assessment," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 652, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  15. Chad Turner & Robert Tamura & Sean Mulholland & Scott Baier, 2007. "Education and income of the states of the United States: 1840–2000," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 101-158, June.
  16. James J. Heckman & Brook S. Payner, 1989. "Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina," NBER Working Papers 2854, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Robert Tamura, 2002. "Human capital and economic development," Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta 2002-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  18. Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, 2002. "A Stochastic Model of Mortality, Fertility, and Human Capital Investment," Macroeconomics, EconWPA 0212009, EconWPA.
  19. Tamura, Robert, 1991. "Income Convergence in an Endogenous Growth Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 522-40, June.
  20. Werner Troesken, 2004. "Water, Race, and Disease," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number troe04-1.
  21. Canaday, Neil & Tamura, Robert, 2009. "White discrimination in provision of black education: Plantations and towns," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1490-1530, July.
  22. Martha J. Bailey & William J. Collins, 2009. "Did Improvements in Household Technology Cause the Baby Boom? Evidence from Electrification, Appliance Diffusion, and the Amish," NBER Working Papers 14641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Werner Troesken, 2004. "Water, Race, and Disease," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262201488, December.
  24. Jeremy Greenwood & Ananth Seshadri & Guillaume Vandenbroucke, 2002. "The Baby Boom and Baby Bust," Economie d'Avant Garde Research Reports, Economie d'Avant Garde 1, Economie d'Avant Garde.
  25. Tamura, Robert, 1996. "From decay to growth: A demographic transition to economic growth," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(6-7), pages 1237-1261.
  26. H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Customer Discrimination and Employment Outcomes for Minority Workers," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 1122-97, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  27. Collins, William J. & Margo, Robert A., 2000. "Residential segregation and socioeconomic outcomes: When did ghettos go bad?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 239-243, November.
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