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Team beats collusion

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  • Barlo, Mehmet
  • Ayca, Ozdogan

Abstract

This paper analyzes optimal contracts in a linear hidden-action model with normally distributed returns possessing two moments that are governed jointly by two agents, who can observe each others' effort levels and draft enforceable side-contracts on chosen effort levels and realized returns. After showing that standard constraints, resulting in incentive-contracts, may fail to ensure implementability, we examine (centralized) collusion-proof contracts and (decentralized) team-contracts. We prove that optimal team-contracts provide the highest implementable returns to the principal. In other words, the principal may restrict attention to outsourcing/decentralization without any loss of generality. Moreover, situations in which incentive-contracts are collusion-proof, thus implementable, are fully characterized.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 37449.

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Date of creation: 19 Mar 2012
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37449

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Keywords: Principal-agent problems; moral hazard; linear contracts; side--contracting; collusion; team; outsourcing; decentralization;

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References

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  1. Sandeep Baliga & Tomas Sjostrom, 1998. "Decentralization and Collusion," Discussion Papers 1210, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  2. Thomson, William, 1981. "Nash's Bargaining Solution and Utilitarian Choice Rules," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(2), pages 535-38, March.
  3. Hellwig, Martin F. & Schmidt, Klaus M., 2002. "Discrete-time approximations of the Holmström-Milgrom brownian-motion model of intertemporal incentive provision," Munich Reprints in Economics 19425, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. Brusco, Sandro, 1997. "Implementing Action Profiles when Agents Collude," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 395-424, April.
  5. Jelovac, I. & Macho-Stadler, I., 1998. "Comparing Organizational Structures in Health Services," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 412.98, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  6. Barlo, Mehmet & Ozdogan, Ayca, 2011. "Optimality of linearity with collusion and renegotiation," MPRA Paper 35548, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1983. "An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(1), pages 7-45, January.
  8. Demski, Joel S. & Sappington, David E. M. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1988. "Incentive schemes with multiple agents and bankruptcy constraints," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 156-167, February.
  9. Antoine Faure-Grimaud & Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 2002. "Risk averse supervisors and the efficiency of collusion," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  10. Demski, Joel S. & Sappington, David, 1984. "Optimal incentive contracts with multiple agents," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 152-171, June.
  11. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1991. "Multitask Principal-Agent Analyses: Incentive Contracts, Asset Ownership, and Job Design," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(0), pages 24-52, Special I.
  12. Rafael Hortala-Vallve & Miguel Sanchez Villalba, 2010. "Internalizing Team Production Externalities through Delegation: The British Passenger Rail Sector as an Example," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(308), pages 785-792, October.
  13. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1997. " Collusion in Organizations," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 99(4), pages 485-95, December.
  14. Mookherjee, Dilip, 1984. "Optimal Incentive Schemes with Many Agents," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 433-46, July.
  15. Itoh Hideshi, 1993. "Coalitions, Incentives, and Risk Sharing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 410-427, August.
  16. Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Martimort, David, 1998. "Mechanism Design with Collusion and Correlation," IDEI Working Papers 81, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  17. Ma, Ching-to & Moore, John & Turnbull, Stephen, 1988. "Stopping agents from "cheating"," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 355-372, December.
  18. Itoh, Hideshi, 1991. "Incentives to Help in Multi-agent Situations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 611-36, May.
  19. Bengt Holmstrom & Paul R. Milgrom, 1985. "Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 742, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  20. Tirole, Jean, 1986. "Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the Role of Collusion in Organizations," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 181-214, Fall.
  21. Perez-Castrillo, J.D. & Macho-Stadler, I., 1992. "Centralized and Decentralized Contracts in a Moral Hazad Environment," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 179.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  22. Felli, Leonardo & Hortala-Vallve, Rafael, 2011. "Preventing Collusion through Discretion," CEPR Discussion Papers 8302, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  23. Itoh, Hideshi, 1994. "Job design, delegation and cooperation: A principal-agent analysis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 691-700, April.
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