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Are the U.S. farm wages equalizing? Markov chain approach

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  • Temel, Tugrul

Abstract

This study investigates convergence in hired farm wages in U.S. counties over the period 1978-92. The time-invariant distribution of wages is characterized using Markov chains. This study is concerned with two questions: Are regional hired farm wages moving in the same direction? If so, are they consistent with the direction of the entire U.S. farm wages? Concerning with e¢ ciency in agricultural labor markets, the study approximates it to the extent that it is re�ected in farm wages. Time-invariant distributions of wages are calculated for the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West region, and for the entire U.S. The results support the hypothesis of convergence at regional level to lower-than-respective regional average wage. Convergence is the strongest in the Northeast and the weakest in the South. Likewise, convergence to lower-than-average wage is present at the U.S. level, but it is stronger than that at the regional level.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 31930.

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Date of creation: 29 Jun 2011
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31930

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Keywords: farm wage movements; labor markets; convergence; Markov chains; U.S. agriculture.;

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  1. Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth," FMG Discussion Papers dp154, Financial Markets Group.
  2. Abraham, Filip, 1996. "Regional adjustment and wage flexibility in the European Union," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-75, February.
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  4. Berman, Eli & Bound, John & Griliches, Zvi, 1994. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(2), pages 367-97, May.
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  7. Mark E. Schweitzer & Max Dupuy, 1996. "Sectoral wage convergence: a nonparametric distributional analysis," Working Paper 9611, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  8. Nicole M. Fortin & Thomas Lemieux, 1997. "Institutional Changes and Rising Wage Inequality: Is There a Linkage?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(2), pages 75-96, Spring.
  9. Eli Berman & John Bound & Zvi Griliches, 1993. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U.S. Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufacturing," NBER Working Papers 4255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Bernard, Andrew B & Jones, Charles I, 1996. "Comparing Apples to Oranges: Productivity Convergence and Measurement across Industries and Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1216-38, December.
  11. Card, David, 1996. "The Effect of Unions on the Structure of Wages: A Longitudinal Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 957-79, July.
  12. Elias G. Carayannis & Rajiv Mallick, 1996. "Regional Income Disparities In Canada: Implications For Theories Of Regional Convergence," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 26(1), pages 55-74, Summer.
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