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Reforma Agrária, Eficiência e Mudança Institutional no Campo: análise teórica e de fronteira estocástica com dados em painel (1998-2006)
[Land Reform, Efficiency and Rural Institutional Change: theory and stochastic frontier analysis with panel data (1998-2006)]

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  • Lambais, GBR
  • Silveira, JMFJ
  • Magalhães, MM

Abstract

This work deals with land reform in Brazil through an evolutionary and new institutional economics theoretical framework. Firstly, this theoretical underpinning delineates the existence of an intrinsic relation between asset equality and economic efficiency, going against the neoclassical trade-off. From this relation it is established that the utilization of society’s productive forces depends directly on institutional structures and propriety relations. In this sense, the way land reallocations are done, through different land redistribution policies, affects directly the level of agricultural product. The product is dependent on the level of allocative and technical efficiency society is submitted to. However, albeit static effects, society is susceptible to dynamic effects of institutional change. Insofar we develop analytical schematics where land reform is related to rural institutional change. From this schematics we derive the hypothesis that the market based land reform executed in Brazil, as a way to redistribute assets supposedly with a governance structure, system of incentives and complementary institutions to the factor markets, there is a gain in systemic productive efficiency at the microeconomic level. To test this hypothesis we develop a stochastic frontier econometric model with time-varying technical inefficiency effects and panel data. We analyze 106 projects of the Cédula da Terra Program in the states of Bahia, Maranhão, North of Minas Gerais, Pernambuco and Ceará, for the years 2000 and 2006. We conclude that this land reform has partial success in establishing productive organizations that evolve constantly their efficiency, wherein learning-by-doing is fundamental. Additionally, the governance effects are limited – the structure was not devised for institutional change – effects of transaction costs and conventions remain, causing market failure and persistence of inefficient forms of organization.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 30741.

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Date of creation: Dec 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30741

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Keywords: land reform; cédula da terra; brazil; stochastic frontier analysis; evolutionary; institutional economics;

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  1. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis, 2000. "Walrasian Economics in Retrospect," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics 2000-04, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
  2. Geoffrey M. Hodgson, 2007. "Meanings of methodological individualism," Journal of Economic Methodology, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 211-226.
  3. Klaus Deininger, 2003. "Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15125, August.
  4. Aoki, Masahiko, 2007. "Endogenizing institutions and institutional changes," Journal of Institutional Economics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(01), pages 1-31, April.
  5. Massimiliano Piacenza, 2006. "Regulatory Contracts and Cost Efficiency: Stochastic Frontier Evidence from the Italian Local Public Transport," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 257-277, 06.
  6. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Paul J. Gertler & Maitreesh Ghatak, 2002. "Empowerment and Efficiency: Tenancy Reform in West Bengal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(2), pages 239-280, April.
  7. Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain, 2005. "Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 27-51, June.
  8. Kingston, Christopher & Caballero, Gonzalo, 2009. "Comparing theories of institutional change," Journal of Institutional Economics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 151-180, August.
  9. Lambais, Guilherme B. R., 2008. "Land Reform in Brazil: the arrival of the market model," MPRA Paper 25446, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Awudu Abdulai & Hendrik Tietje, 2007. "Estimating technical efficiency under unobserved heterogeneity with stochastic frontier models: application to northern German dairy farms," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 34(3), pages 393-416, September.
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