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The Extent of Trade Mis-Invoicing in Turkey: Did Post-1990 Policies Matter?

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  • Yalta, A. Yasemin
  • Demir, Ishak

Abstract

We analyze the extent and the direction of trade misinvoicing in the context of the new policy environment that has affected the Turkish economy in the post 1990 period. Utilizing bilateral partner country statistics between Turkey and its major trading partners, we observe persisting export overinvoicing and an oscillating pattern of import misinvoicing at the aggregate level. Country-specific data reveal different patterns. As opposed to the general trend in misinvoicing, exports to China are underinvoiced and imports are overinvoiced. We also analyze how the liberalization policies and the customs union agreement with the European Union countries affect trade misinvoicing. We find that, with trade liberalization policies, import misinvoicing has decreased at the aggregate level. However, contrary to the expectations, customs union agreement did not help decrease the extent of trade misinvoicing in Turkey.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 30186.

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Date of creation: 15 Apr 2010
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Publication status: Published in Journal of Economic Cooperation and Development 3.31(2010): pp. 41-66
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30186

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Keywords: International trade; trade misinvoicing; foreign trade statistics; Turkey.;

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References

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  1. Fisman, Raymond & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2001. "Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from 'Missing Imports' in China," CEPR Discussion Papers 3089, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Sule Ozler & Kamil Yilmaz, 2009. "Productivity response to reduction in trade barriers: evidence from Turkish manufacturing plants," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(2), pages 339-360, July.
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  4. Harrison, Glenn W. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 1996. "Economic implications for Turkey of a customs union with the European Union," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1599, The World Bank.
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  6. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Enrico Moretti, 2005. "Did Iraq Cheat the United Nations? Underpricing, Bribes, and the Oil for Food Program," NBER Working Papers 11202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. De Wulf, Luc, 1981. "Statistical analysis of under- and overinvoicing of imports," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 303-323, June.
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  9. Kamil Yilmaz & Umit Izmen, 2009. "Turkey's Recent Trade and Foreign Direct Investment Performance," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 0902, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum.
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  11. Andreas Buehn & Stefan Eichler, 2011. "Trade Misinvoicing: The Dark Side of World Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(8), pages 1263-1287, 08.
  12. Amit Biswas & Sugata Marjit, 2005. "Mis-invoicing and Trade Policy," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 189-205.
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Cited by:
  1. Kubo, Koji, 2012. "Trade policies and trade mis-reporting in Myanmar," IDE Discussion Papers 326, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

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