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Mis-allocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure leads to the wastage of school resource inputs and lower academic achievement: an issue of resource management

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  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad
  • Dahar, Rashida Ahmad
  • Dahar, Riffat Tahira

Abstract

This study was conducted to find out the impact of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure on the academic achievement of students at secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan). Student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure are very important school resource inputs. The lesser student teacher ratio and class size, and the higher per student expenditure are very effective for producing higher level of academic achievement; however, it depends upon their proper allocation among schools. Population of the study comprised all secondary and higher secondary schools, secondary teachers and secondary students in Punjab. Overall, a total of 288 schools, then 20 students and 10 teachers from each school were randomly selected as the sample of the study. The study identified the student teacher ratio and class size through school profile proforma. The longitudinal data of academic achievement in the form of aggregate marks of the annual examinations of the Classes VI, VII, & VIII as prior achievement and that of the Class X as academic achievement of the same students through “Result Sheet”. The data were summarized at school level and then analyzed collectively. Stepwise Regression analysis with linear function was used to find out the differential impact of student teacher ratio and class size on the academic achievement. The study found that there is much variation and misallocation in student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure among schools. The study found that misallocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure leads to the wastage of resources and lower level of academic achievement. Reduction in student teacher ratio and class size, and addition in per student expenditure are very expensive; therefore, policy can be decided considering the funds constraints. However, allocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure can be equalized within the scarce funds. This equal allocation of these resource inputs may lead to the effective use of school resource inputs and produce higher level of academic achievement.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 27835.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27835

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Related research

Keywords: prior achievement; student teacher ratio; class size; per student expenditure; academic achievement;

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  1. Harold Alderman & Peter F. Orazem & Elizabeth M. Paterno, 2001. "School Quality, School Cost, and the Public/Private School Choices of Low-Income Households in Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(2), pages 304-326.
  2. Hanushek, Eric A, 1995. "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 227-46, August.
  3. Lee, Jong-Wha & Barro, Robert J, 2001. "Schooling Quality in a Cross-Section of Countries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 465-88, November.
  4. Eide, Eric & Showalter, Mark H., 1998. "The effect of school quality on student performance: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 345-350, March.
  5. Hanushek, Eric A., 2006. "School Resources," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  6. Alan B. Krueger, 1999. "Experimental Estimates Of Education Production Functions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 497-532, May.
  7. Jonathan Guryan, 2001. "Does Money Matter? Regression-Discontinuity Estimates from Education Finance Reform in Massachusetts," NBER Working Papers 8269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Michaelowa, Katharina, 2001. "Primary Education Quality in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of Learning Achievement and Efficiency Considerations," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1699-1716, October.
  9. Woessmann, Ludger, 2003. "How Does East Asia Achieve Its High Educational Performance?," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003, Royal Economic Society 221, Royal Economic Society.
  10. Hans Bonesrønning, 2003. "Class Size Effects on Student Achievement in Norway: Patterns and Explanations," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(4), pages 952-965, April.
  11. Margaret Stevens & Kathryn Graddy, 2003. "The Impact of School Inputs on Student Performance: An Empirical Study of Private Schools in the United Kingdom," Economics Series Working Papers 146, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  12. Naeem Akram & Ihtsham ul Haq Padda & Mohammad Khan, 2008. "The Long Term Impact of Health on Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(4), pages 487–500.
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