Subsidy to Promote Girls' Secondary Education: The Female Stipend Program in Bangladesh
AbstractSecondary school enrollment rates in the developing countries are usually lower for girls than boys, especially in rural areas. In the mid 1990’s a female school stipend program was introduced to subsidize girls’ secondary education in rural Bangladesh. Although all of rural Bangladesh was eventually covered by this program, it was not introduced at the same time in all areas and to all class cohorts. This variation in timing is the source of parameter identification in the analysis. Using two different datasets and school/village-level fixed effects, we estimate the effects of this stipend program on school enrollments. The analysis based upon two cross-sectional household surveys covering a common set of villages finds that the female stipend program increased girls’ secondary education substantially, but had no discernable effect on the schooling of boys. The analysis performed with an annual panel of school-level data also finds a significant effect of the stipend program on girl’s enrollment and reduced the enrollment of boys in coeducational secondary schools.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 23688.
Date of creation: Mar 2003
Date of revision:
female education; gender; stipend program; conditional cash transfer; impact evaluation; Bangladesh;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kim, Jooseop & Alderman, Harold & Orazem, Peter F, 1999. "Can Private School Subsidies Increase Enrollment for the Poor? The Quetta Urban Fellowship Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 13(3), pages 443-65, September.
- King, Elizabeth M. & Orazem, Peter & Wohlgemuth, Darin, 1999.
"Central Mandates and Local Incentives: The Colombia Education Voucher Program,"
Staff General Research Papers
1708, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- King, Elizabeth M & Orazem, Peter F & Wohlgemuth, Darin, 1999. "Central Mandates and Local Incentives: The Colombia Education Voucher Program," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 13(3), pages 467-91, September.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1988. "Education investments and returns," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 543-630 Elsevier.
- Khandker, S.R., 1996. "Education Achievements and School Efficiency in Rural Bangladesh," World Bank - Discussion Papers, World Bank 319, World Bank.
- Glewwe, Paul & Kassouf, Ana Lucia, 2012.
"The impact of the Bolsa Escola/Familia conditional cash transfer program on enrollment, dropout rates and grade promotion in Brazil,"
Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier,
Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 505-517.
- Paul Glewwe & Ana Lucia Kassouf, 2008. "The Impact of the Bolsa Escola/Familia Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Enrollment, Drop Out Rates and Grade Promotion in Brazil," Working Papers, Universidade de SÃ£o Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, AdministraÃ§Ã£o e Contabilidade de RibeirÃ£o Preto 08_16, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto.
- Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Marianne Bertrand & Leigh L. Linden & Francisco Perez-Calle, 2008.
"Conditional Cash Transfers in Education Design Features, Peer and Sibling Effects Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Colombia,"
NBER Working Papers
13890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barrera-Osorio, Felipe & Bertrand, Marianne & L. Linden, Leigh & Perez-Calle, Francisco, 2008. "Conditional cash transfers in education : design features, peer and sibling effects evidence from a randomized experiment in Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4580, The World Bank.
- Mark M. Pitt & Mark Rosenzweig & Nazmul Hassan, 2010. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 989, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Margaret Grosh & Carlo del Ninno & Emil Tesliuc & Azedine Ouerghi, 2008. "For Protection and Promotion : The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6582, August.
- Mark M. Pitt & Mark R. Rosenzweig & Mohammad Nazmul Hassan, 2012.
"Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy,"
American Economic Review, American Economic Association,
American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3531-60, December.
- Pitt, Mark M. & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Hassan, Nazmul, 2010. "Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy," Working Papers, Yale University, Department of Economics 83, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Chaudhury, Nazmul & Parajuli, Dilip, 2006. "Conditional cash transfers and female schooling : the impact of the female school stipend program on public school enrollments in Punjab, Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4102, The World Bank.
- Alam, Andaleeb & Baez, Javier E. & V. Del Carpio, Ximena, 2011.
"Does cash for school influence young women's behavior in the longer term ? evidence from Pakistan,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
5669, The World Bank.
- Alam, Andaleeb & Baez, Javier E. & Del Carpio, Ximena, 2011. "Does Cash for School Influence Young Women's Behavior in the Longer Term? Evidence from Pakistan," IZA Discussion Papers 5703, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Chitolina, Lia & Foguel, Miguel Nathan & Menezes-Filho, Naercio, 2013. "The impact of the expansion of the Bolsa Familia Program on the time allocation of youths and their parents," Insper Working Papers, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa wpe_326, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
- Shi, Xinzheng, 2012. "Does an intra-household flypaper effect exist? Evidence from the educational fee reduction reform in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 459-473.
- Armando Barrientos & Jasmina Byrne & Paola Peña & Juan Miguel Villa & UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2013. "Social Transfers and Child Protection," Innocenti Working Papers inwopa691, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Willa Friedman & Michael Kremer & Edward Miguel & Rebecca Thornton, 2011. "Education as Liberation?," NBER Working Papers 16939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2597, August.
- Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Marianne Bertrand & Leigh L. Linden & Francisco Perez-Calle, 2011. "Improving the Design of Conditional Transfer Programs: Evidence from a Randomized Education Experiment in Colombia," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 167-95, April.
- Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2005. "Does Increasing Women's Schooling Raise the Schooling of the Next Generation? Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1745-1751, December.
- Glick, Peter, 2008. "What Policies will Reduce Gender Schooling Gaps in Developing Countries: Evidence and Interpretation," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 1623-1646, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.