Development of Women Education in India
AbstractWomen constitute almost half of the population of the world. Education for women is the best way to improve the health, nutrition and economic status of a household that constitute a micro unit of a nation economy. In this context, it can be argued that lack of woman education can be an impediment to the country’s economic development. In India, women achieve far less education that of men. As per the Census report 2001, the literacy rate of women is 54.16 per cent and that of men is 65.38 per cent. There has been a sincere effort to improve the education attainment of women by both government and voluntary organizations. The changes in the policies and infrastructural supports on primary, secondary and higher education reflect the initiatives of the Government of India towards women education. This paper examined the trends in women education, the investments on education and infrastructural supports in India. The study revealed that there had been significant progress in the performance of women education revealed from female literacy levels and its change over time. It was also observed that the gaps between rural and urban female literacy rates are narrowing down. It was observed that rural poverty acts as a push factors for women’s education rather than as an obstacle to women’s education. The significant influence of urbanization on women’s education implied that urbanization had been playing a beneficial role in the attainment of women’s education in India. At the same time, the drop-out rate had a negative effect on women’s education. It revealed that that reduction of girl’s drop-out rates is necessary for achieving women’s education. The initiatives of the government through investment and infrastructure in developing education in India were examined. With regard to facilities in schools, it had improved significantly, but a lot more need to be done. In sum, the study revealed that there have been concerted efforts to encourage girls to attend schools, which would lead to higher literacy in future. The study also revealed that there are several infrastructural barriers to women education in India. The study calls for focused approach towards increasing women centred educational infrastructure so as to reduce the women drop-out rates and to improve female literacy levels in India.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 20680.
Date of creation: 15 Feb 2010
Date of revision: 15 Feb 2010
Women Development; women education; women literacy; education infrastructure; Female literacy rate; women in India; Indian women; primary education; secondary education; higher education; India;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
- A2 - General Economics and Teaching - - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
- B54 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Current Heterodox Approaches - - - Feminist Economics
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-02-27 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2010-02-27 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-EDU-2010-02-27 (Education)
- NEP-HAP-2010-02-27 (Economics of Happiness)
- NEP-HRM-2010-02-27 (Human Capital & Human Resource Management)
- NEP-LAB-2010-02-27 (Labour Economics)
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